Chicago Freedom Movement (1965–1967)

The Chicago Freedom Movement, led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., James Bevel, and Al Raby, was created to challenge systematic racial segregation and discrimination in Chicago and its suburbs. The movement which included rallies, protest marches, boycotts, and other forms of non-violent direct action … Read MoreChicago Freedom Movement (1965–1967)

St. Martin De Porres Club (1947- )

The St. Martin De Porres Club was founded in 1947 by Father John P. Markoe, S.J., a  priest, and Creighton University students interested in local civil rights issues in Omaha, Nebraska.   Father Markoe was assigned to St. Benedict the Moor Parish at 2423 Grant Street … Read MoreSt. Martin De Porres Club (1947- )

NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund (1940– )

The NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc. (LDF or, alternately, the ‘Inc. Fund’) provides legal services in the fight against racial discrimination. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) program for reform had long combined legal challenges to de jure segregation … Read MoreNAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund (1940– )

National Council of Negro Women (1935- )

The National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) was founded on December 5, 1935, with the support of the leaders of 28 of the most notable black women’s organizations. The founder and president until 1949, Mary McLeod Bethune, envisioned a unified force of black women’s groups … Read MoreNational Council of Negro Women (1935- )

Friends of Negro Freedom (1920-1930)

Cover of The Messenger magazine, 1918 Image Courtesy of Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations The Friends of Negro Freedom (FNF) was created by A. Philip Randolph and … Read MoreFriends of Negro Freedom (1920-1930)

Kansas State Colored Convention (1863)

The first Kansas State Colored Convention was a call from black Kansans to be granted a future of “Liberty, Justice and Equality” under the United States government.  The first Kansas Colored Convention was held in Leavenworth, Kansas on October 13-16, 1863 in the African Methodist … Read MoreKansas State Colored Convention (1863)

The Conventions of Colored Citizens of the State of California (1855-1865)

California Colored Convention Cover Page, 1855 Image Ownership: Public Domain The four California Colored Conventions held between 1855 and 1865 were a response to blacks being treated as second-class citizens and constantly threatened and violently assaulted by white men without legal and political recourse in … Read MoreThe Conventions of Colored Citizens of the State of California (1855-1865)