Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery (1688)

The Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery was the first documented protest of enslavement of African Americans made by a religious body in the thirteen colonies. The colony of Pennsylvania was established in 1681 by William Penn, and in 1683, Francis Daniel Pastorius, an educator, lawyer … Read MoreGermantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery (1688)


In the article below, legal scholar Malik Simba explains the development of Critical Race Theory, the legal concept that has now become one of the most hotly debated topics in the ongoing cultural wars in the United States between political conservatives and political liberals. The … Read MoreCRITICAL RACE THEORY: A Brief History

Sundown Towns

Sundown Towns are all-white communities, neighborhoods, or counties that exclude Blacks and other minorities through the use of discriminatory laws, harassment, and threats or use of violence. The name derives from the posted and verbal warnings issued to Blacks that although they might be allowed … Read MoreSundown Towns

The Saltwater Railroad (1821-1861)

The “Saltwater Railroad” refers to the coastal waterway followed by many enslaved people escaping from the Southern slave states into the British-controlled Bahamas. The saltwater railroad served a similar function as the Underground Railroad, a land pathway, that allowed enslaved people to flee to northern … Read MoreThe Saltwater Railroad (1821-1861)

The Enforcement Act of 1870 (1870-1871)

In the five years following the Civil War, the U.S. Congress passed and the states ratified the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution. These amendments permanently ended slavery and granted African Americans access to civil rights and suffrage as citizens of the United … Read MoreThe Enforcement Act of 1870 (1870-1871)

Second Emancipation Proclamation (1962)

The Second Emancipation Proclamation was an envisioned executive order proposed by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and other leaders of the civil rights movement which they urged President John F. Kennedy to issue. As the Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln to … Read MoreSecond Emancipation Proclamation (1962)

The Almoravids/al-Murabitun (1040–1147)

The Almoravids, or al-Murabitun as they called themselves, were an Islamic Berber dynasty that established an empire in Morocco and eventually took it over a wide region of Northwest Africa including modern Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, and part of Algeria.  The emprire stretched as far south … Read MoreThe Almoravids/al-Murabitun (1040–1147)

John Andrew Burroughs, Jr. (1936-2014)

John Andrew Burroughs Jr. was an equal opportunity advocate and diplomat who was born in Washington, D.C. on July 31, 1936. He spent his youth in Washington, D.C. before moving to the Midwest to attend the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa.  While there … Read MoreJohn Andrew Burroughs, Jr. (1936-2014)