The Enforcement Act of 1870 (1870-1871)

In the five years following the Civil War, the U.S. Congress passed and the states ratified the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution. These amendments permanently ended slavery and granted African Americans access to civil rights and suffrage as citizens of the United … Read MoreThe Enforcement Act of 1870 (1870-1871)

The Almoravids/al-Murabitun (1040–1147)

The Almoravids, or al-Murabitun as they called themselves, were an Islamic Berber dynasty that established an empire in Morocco and eventually took it over a wide region of Northwest Africa including modern Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, and part of Algeria.  The emprire stretched as far south … Read MoreThe Almoravids/al-Murabitun (1040–1147)

John Andrew Burroughs Jr. (1936–2014)

John Andrew Burroughs Jr. was an equal opportunity advocate and diplomat who was born in Washington, D.C. on July 31, 1936. He spent his youth in Washington, D.C. before moving to the Midwest to attend the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa.  While there … Read MoreJohn Andrew Burroughs Jr. (1936–2014)

Black Belt Republic (1928-1934)

Black Belt Republic Poster, 1932 “Image Ownership: Public Domain” The Black Belt Republic was a proposed black autonomous state in the American Deep South proposed by African American communists and for a time endorsed by the Soviet Union and the international communist community. The Black … Read MoreBlack Belt Republic (1928-1934)

John Chilembwe (c. 1871-1915)

John Chilembwe and Family Image Ownership: Public Domain John Chilembwe was a Baptist educator and political leader who organized an uprising against British colonial rule in Nyasaland (today Malawi). Though details about Chilembwe’s early life are largely undocumented, it is believed that he was born … Read MoreJohn Chilembwe (c. 1871-1915)