(1863) Alexander Crummell, “The Responsibility of the First Fathers of a Country for its Future Life and Character”

Image Ownership: Public Domain African American intellectual Alexander Crummell lived in Monrovia, Liberia for nineteen years between 1853 and 1872.  While there he taught at Liberia College.  In a speech delivered in Monrovia on December 1, 1863, Crummell discusses the role educated young Liberian men … Read More(1863) Alexander Crummell, “The Responsibility of the First Fathers of a Country for its Future Life and Character”

(1902) Rev. Mojola Agbebi, “Inaugural Sermon”

Rev. Dr. Mojola Agbebi, born April 10, 1860 as David Brown Vincent in Western Nigeria, was a leading proponent of “Ethiopianism,” which advocated an African-centered Christianity.  In the 1880s, as an indication of his embrace of African culture he changed his name to Mojola Agbebi.   … Read More(1902) Rev. Mojola Agbebi, “Inaugural Sermon”

(1906) Isaka Seme, “The Regeneration of Africa”

Pixley Isaka Seme was one of the first western-educated Africans to challenge the European colonialism then sweeping across the continent. Born in Natal, South Africa, Eme was educated at Columbia and Oxford Universities in the United States and Great Britain where he also became an attorney.  … Read More(1906) Isaka Seme, “The Regeneration of Africa”

(1919) Orishatuke Faduma, “Not Failure But Low Aim is Crime”

Orishatuke Faduma, born James Davies in Sierra Leone, was a late 19th and early 20th Century African nationalist.  He studied at both London University and Yale University in the 1880s and eventually became a follower of Pan-Africanist Edward W. Blyden.  Faduma also helped Chief Alfred … Read More(1919) Orishatuke Faduma, “Not Failure But Low Aim is Crime”

(1924) Prince Marc Kojo Tovalou Houènou, “The Problem of Negroes in French Colonial Africa”

  George Marke, Prince Kojo Tovalou Houenou, and Marcus Garvey in Harlem, 1924 Image Ownership: Public Domain In the years immediately following World War I, Prince Marc Kojo Tovalou Houènou was one of  a small number of French Speaking Africans to openly  challenge French rule … Read More(1924) Prince Marc Kojo Tovalou Houènou, “The Problem of Negroes in French Colonial Africa”

(1926) John Williamson Kuyé, “Right of the People to Self-Determination”

John Williamson Kuyé, an early 20th Century advocate of African self-rule was in many respects part of the first wave of African nationalists.  Born in Bathurst, Gambia, on November 10,  1894, he attended Stanley Day School and Wesleyan Boys’ High School in Sierra Leone.  Kuyé … Read More(1926) John Williamson Kuyé, “Right of the People to Self-Determination”

(1927) Lamine Senghor, “The Negro’s Fight for Freedom”

Lamine Senghor was an early Senegalese nationalist.  Born in Kaolack, Senegal in 1889, he served in the French Army between 1915 and 1919 and returned to Paris in 1922.  Senghor joined the French Communist Party and ran as a ran as Communist Party candidate in … Read More(1927) Lamine Senghor, “The Negro’s Fight for Freedom”

(1936) Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, “Appeal to the League of Nations”

Without warning, Italian armed forces invaded Ethiopia on October 3, 1935, quickly defeated the Ethiopian Army, and forced Emperor Haile Selassie into exile first in Palestine and eventually in Great Britain.  On June 30, 1936, Emperor Selassie came before the League of Nations in Geneva, … Read More(1936) Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, “Appeal to the League of Nations”

(1949) Nnamdi Azikiwe Speaks at a Rally for Nigerian Independence at Trafalgar Square, London

In 1949 it was far from clear as to whether or when Great Britain would grant independence to Nigeria.  Nonetheless 45 year old Nnamdi Azikiwe had already emerged as one of the leaders in the Nigerian independence campaign.  He and other Nigerian nationalists took that … Read More(1949) Nnamdi Azikiwe Speaks at a Rally for Nigerian Independence at Trafalgar Square, London

(1949) Nnamdi Azikiwe Speaks before the British Peace Conference in London

Nigerian independence leader Nnamdi Azikiwe appeared before the Plenary Session of the British Peace Congress held in London on  October 23, 1949.  He used that occasion to educate his audience about Nigeria and Africa. He also used the opportunity to remind the peace advocates that … Read More(1949) Nnamdi Azikiwe Speaks before the British Peace Conference in London