The Conventions of Colored Citizens of the State of California (1855-1865)

California Colored Convention Cover Page, 1855 Image Ownership: Public Domain The four California Colored Conventions held between 1855 and 1865 were a response to blacks being treated as second-class citizens and constantly threatened and violently assaulted by white men without legal and political recourse in … Read MoreThe Conventions of Colored Citizens of the State of California (1855-1865)

National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs (1896)

The National Association of Colored Women‘s Clubs, Inc. (NACWC), was established in July 1896 as a merger between the National League of Colored Women and the National Federation of Afro-American Women.  The merger enabled the NACWC to function as a national umbrella group for local … Read MoreNational Association of Colored Women’s Clubs (1896)

National Black Feminist Organization (1973-1976)

Founded in May 1973, the National Black Feminist Organization (NBFO) addresses the double burden of sexism and racism faced by black women. The first meeting took place in New York City, New York and included prominent activists Michele Wallace, Margaret Sloan, Flo Kennedy, Faith Ringgold, … Read MoreNational Black Feminist Organization (1973-1976)

Barbara-Rose Collins (1939- )

U.S. Congresswoman Barbara-Rose Collins was born in Detroit, Michigan on April 13, 1939 to Lunar N. and Vera (Jones) Richardson. Collins attended Wayne State University in Detroit. Her career began at Wayne State University where she served as business manager, worked in the Physics department, … Read MoreBarbara-Rose Collins (1939- )

Women’s Political Council of Montgomery

The Women’s Political Council (WPC) of Montgomery, Alabama was founded in 1946 by scholar and Alabama State College professor Mary Fair Burks. The Council was a political organization meant to fight the institutionalized racism of Montgomery, Alabama, and an organization that provided leadership opportunities for … Read MoreWomen’s Political Council of Montgomery

Operation PUSH (People United to Serve Humanity)

Operation PUSH was founded by Rev. Jesse Jackson in 1971 to improve the economic status of African Americans in Chicago, Illinois.  Prior to founding PUSH, Jackson was head of the Southern Leadership Conference’s Operation Breadbasket in Chicago.  Through Breadbasket, Jackson succeeded in persuading many corporations … Read MoreOperation PUSH (People United to Serve Humanity)

Washington State Board Against Discrimination

In 1949 Washington State enacted the Fair Employment Practices Act (FEPA) to make discrimination in hiring on the basis of race, creed, color, or national origin illegal. The Washington State Board Against Discrimination (WSBAD) was created as a provision of the act to make sure … Read MoreWashington State Board Against Discrimination