Mississippi Black Codes, 1865-1866

Following the passage of the 13th Amendment on January 31, 1865, slavery was officially ended throughout the United States, including in the eleven former Confederate States. Almost immediately governments in these states began a process to reestablish white supremacy in the law. The result was … Read MoreMississippi Black Codes, 1865-1866

Formation of the Buffalo Soldiers, 1866

On July 28, 1866, the Thirty-Ninth Congress passed the Act to increase and fix the Military Peace Establishment of the United States; thus the federal government created six all-Colored Army Regiments. The units identified as the 9th and 10th Colored Cavalry Regiments and the 38th, … Read MoreFormation of the Buffalo Soldiers, 1866

Nine Minutes in May: How George Floyd’s Death Shook the World

In the article below, California State University, Fresno, History and Africana Studies professor Malik Simba briefly examines the life and death of George Floyd and how the latter transformed the struggle for racial justice in and beyond the United States. George Floyd died on Memorial … Read MoreNine Minutes in May: How George Floyd’s Death Shook the World