Fighting For Freedom, Fighting Against the Bomb: African Americans and the Campaign for a Nuclear-Free World, 1945-

In the description of his 2015 book, African Americans Against the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Colonialism, and the Black Freedom Movement, historian Vincent Intondi describes the long but little-known history of black Americans in the Nuclear Disarmament Movement. His essay, which appears below, tells the compelling … Read MoreFighting For Freedom, Fighting Against the Bomb: African Americans and the Campaign for a Nuclear-Free World, 1945-

Juvénal Habyarimana (1937-1994)

Image Ownership: Public domain Juvénal Habyarimana, President of Rwanda, was born on March 8, 1937, in Gasiza, in the Gisenyi province of what was at this time the Ruanda-Urundi mandate, controlled by Belgium. Habyarimana was an Hutu, whose parents, Jean-Baptiste Ntibazilikana and Suzanne Nyirazuba, were Christians. He went to … Read MoreJuvénal Habyarimana (1937-1994)

Interahamwe (1992- )

Mass Grave, Rwandan Genocide, 1994 Image Ownership: Public domain Interahamwe, translated from Kinyarwanda to English as “those who work/ fight together,” is an African paramilitary and terrorist group currently based in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. Composed mainly of young Hutu men, Interahamwe was one … Read MoreInterahamwe (1992- )

Third Congo Civil War (1998-2003)

Boy Soldiers in the Congo, 2000 Image Ownership: Public domain The Third Congo Civil War—also known as Africa’s World War—was a five-year conflict that occurred primarily in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Nine African countries eventually became involved in the war other than the DRC: Angola, Chad, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi. … Read MoreThird Congo Civil War (1998-2003)

Second Congo Civil War (1996-1997)

Zaire Government Troops, the Second Congo Civil War Image Ownership: Public domain The Second Congo Civil War was the struggle to overthrow long-time Zaire President Mobutu Sese Seko by Laurent-Désiré Kabila, the leader of the Alliance of Democratic Forces of the Liberation of Congo (ADFLC). Kabila initially had the support of … Read MoreSecond Congo Civil War (1996-1997)

Laurent-Désiré / Kabila, Laurent Kabila (1939–2001)

Image Ownership: Public domain Laurent-Désiré Kabila, or Laurent Kabila, was born in 1939 and was murdered on January 16, 2001. Beginning in May 1997, he was the leader of a rebellion against the President of Zaire, Mobutu Sese Seko. Following this insurrection, he became President … Read MoreLaurent-Désiré / Kabila, Laurent Kabila (1939–2001)

Etienne / Tshisekedi wa Mulumba, Etienne Tshisekedi (1932–2017)

“image Ownership: Public Domain” Etienne Tshisekedi (wa Mulumba) was a statesman of the opposition in the Democratic Republic of Congo. He built and presided over the party of opposition, Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS: Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social). He … Read MoreEtienne / Tshisekedi wa Mulumba, Etienne Tshisekedi (1932–2017)