Fighting For Freedom, Fighting Against the Bomb: African Americans and the Campaign for a Nuclear-Free World, 1945-

In the description of his 2015 book, African Americans Against the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Colonialism, and the Black Freedom Movement, historian Vincent Intondi describes the long but little-known history of black Americans in the Nuclear Disarmament Movement. His essay, which appears below, tells the compelling … Read MoreFighting For Freedom, Fighting Against the Bomb: African Americans and the Campaign for a Nuclear-Free World, 1945-

Juvénal Habyarimana (1937-1994)

Juvénal Habyarimana, President of Rwanda, was born on March 8, 1937, in Gasiza, in the Gisenyi province of what was at this time the Ruanda-Urundi mandate, controlled by Belgium. Habyarimana was an Hutu, whose parents, Jean-Baptiste Ntibazilikana and Suzanne Nyirazuba, were Christians. He went to a Catholic primary school, but then … Read MoreJuvénal Habyarimana (1937-1994)

Interahamwe (1992- )

Interahamwe, translated from Kinyarwanda to English as “those who work/ fight together,” is an African paramilitary and terrorist group currently based in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. Composed mainly of young Hutu men, Interahamwe was one of the major belligerents against the Tutsi in Rwanda, leading … Read MoreInterahamwe (1992- )

Eva R. Coles (1880-1902)

Eva R. Boone, born Eva R. Coles, was a Virginia-born missionary in Congo Free State (present-day Democratic Republic of Congo). Coles was born on January 8, 1880 in Charlottesville, Virginia. She graduated from Hartshorn Memorial College in Richmond, Virginia—which preceded Spelman and Bennett Colleges as the first college for African American women—in May … Read MoreEva R. Coles (1880-1902)

Third Congo Civil War (1998-2003)

The Third Congo Civil War—also known as Africa’s World War—was a five-year conflict that occurred primarily in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Nine African countries eventually became involved in the war other than the DRC: Angola, Chad, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi. The Third Congo Civil War became the deadliest conflict since World … Read MoreThird Congo Civil War (1998-2003)

Second Congo Civil War (1996-1997)

Zaire Government Troops, the Second Congo Civil WarThe Second Congo Civil War was the struggle to overthrow long-time Zaire President Mobutu Sese Seko by Laurent-Désiré Kabila, the leader of the Alliance of Democratic Forces of the Liberation of Congo (ADFLC). Kabila initially had the support of governments in neighboring nations including Angola, Uganda, Rwanda, … Read MoreSecond Congo Civil War (1996-1997)