Fighting For Freedom, Fighting Against the Bomb: African Americans and the Campaign for a Nuclear-Free World, 1945-

In the description of his 2015 book, African Americans Against the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Colonialism, and the Black Freedom Movement, historian Vincent Intondi describes the long but little-known history of black Americans in the Nuclear Disarmament Movement. His essay, which appears below, tells the compelling … Read MoreFighting For Freedom, Fighting Against the Bomb: African Americans and the Campaign for a Nuclear-Free World, 1945-

Juvénal Habyarimana (1937-1994)

Image Ownership: Public domain Juvénal Habyarimana, President of Rwanda, was born on March 8, 1937, in Gasiza, in the Gisenyi province of what was at this time the Ruanda-Urundi mandate, controlled by Belgium. Habyarimana was an Hutu, whose parents, Jean-Baptiste Ntibazilikana and Suzanne Nyirazuba, were Christians. He went to … Read MoreJuvénal Habyarimana (1937-1994)

Interahamwe (1992- )

Mass Grave, Rwandan Genocide, 1994 Image Ownership: Public domain Interahamwe, translated from Kinyarwanda to English as “those who work/ fight together,” is an African paramilitary and terrorist group currently based in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. Composed mainly of young Hutu men, Interahamwe was one … Read MoreInterahamwe (1992- )

Third Congo Civil War (1998-2003)

Boy Soldiers in the Congo, 2000 Image Ownership: Public domain The Third Congo Civil War—also known as Africa’s World War—was a five-year conflict that occurred primarily in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Nine African countries eventually became involved in the war other than the DRC: Angola, Chad, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi. … Read MoreThird Congo Civil War (1998-2003)

Second Congo Civil War (1996-1997)

Zaire Government Troops, the Second Congo Civil War Image Ownership: Public domain The Second Congo Civil War was the struggle to overthrow long-time Zaire President Mobutu Sese Seko by Laurent-Désiré Kabila, the leader of the Alliance of Democratic Forces of the Liberation of Congo (ADFLC). Kabila initially had the support of … Read MoreSecond Congo Civil War (1996-1997)

Flemmie Pansy Kittrell (1904-1980)

Flemmie Kittrell was born on December 25, 1904 to James and Alice Kittrell in Henderson, North Carolina. Kittrell attended Hampton Institution in Virginia (which has since changed to Hampton University) and received her bachelors of science in 1928. Kittrell’s undergraduate degree was in home economics and after encouragement from her professors, Kittrell enrolled … Read MoreFlemmie Pansy Kittrell (1904-1980)

Laurent-Désiré / Kabila, Laurent Kabila (1939–2001)

Image Ownership: Public domain Laurent-Désiré Kabila, or Laurent Kabila, was born in 1939 and was murdered on January 16, 2001. Beginning in May 1997, he was the leader of a rebellion against the President of Zaire, Mobutu Sese Seko. Following this insurrection, he became President … Read MoreLaurent-Désiré / Kabila, Laurent Kabila (1939–2001)

Etienne / Tshisekedi wa Mulumba, Etienne Tshisekedi (1932–2017)

“image Ownership: Public Domain” Etienne Tshisekedi (wa Mulumba) was a statesman of the opposition in the Democratic Republic of Congo. He built and presided over the party of opposition, Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS: Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social). He … Read MoreEtienne / Tshisekedi wa Mulumba, Etienne Tshisekedi (1932–2017)