The Battle of Honey Springs, Indian Territory (1863)

Few people recognize that the Civil War extended into Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). The largest battle in the Territory, the Battle of Honey Springs, took place on July 17, 1863, when Confederate and Union forces clashed near Honey Springs, Indian Territory. Although three of the … Read MoreThe Battle of Honey Springs, Indian Territory (1863)

The Saltwater Railroad (1821-1861)

The “Saltwater Railroad” refers to the coastal waterway followed by many enslaved people escaping from the Southern slave states into the British-controlled Bahamas. The saltwater railroad served a similar function as the Underground Railroad, a land pathway, that allowed enslaved people to flee to northern … Read MoreThe Saltwater Railroad (1821-1861)

Charles Caldwell (ca. 1831-1875)

Charles Caldwell was a prominent Mississippi Republican during the Reconstruction era who spent his political career advocating for increased racial equality in the state. Charles Caldwell is believed to have been born in 1831, although the exact details of his birth and childhood are unknown. He was born into slavery and as … Read MoreCharles Caldwell (ca. 1831-1875)