Samuel “Sambo” Anderson (? -1845)

Enslaved Workers With George Washington at his Plantation, Mount Vernon Image Ownership: Public domain Samuel “Sambo” Anderson was one of the enslaved people on George Washington’s Virginia plantation, Mount Vernon. The early history of Anderson is unclear but what is known is Anderson was from … Read MoreSamuel “Sambo” Anderson (? -1845)

Ladies’ Refugee Aid Society (1864)

The Ladies Refugee Aid Society of Kansas was founded in 1864 by black freedwomen in Lawrence. It was the first black women’s club in the West, preceding the Kansas Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs (a larger amalgamation of various state women’s societies). LRAS was a … Read MoreLadies’ Refugee Aid Society (1864)

Indian Severalty (The Dawes and Curtis Acts) and Black Indian Freedmen

Black Descendant of Cherokee Freedman Image Ownership: Public domain In the late nineteenth century, black Indian freedmen were uniquely affected by the Indian Severalty Acts. Black freedmen had lived in the Indian Territory since before the Civil War, with many having originally come as slaves. … Read MoreIndian Severalty (The Dawes and Curtis Acts) and Black Indian Freedmen

The Robert Nero Controversy (1983- )

The Robert Nero controversy refers to a late 20th Century case involving the issue of Indian identity among Cherokee Freedmen, the blacks who culturally identify with the Cherokee Nation.  The controversy began with a legal class action lawsuit brought before the U.S. District Court in … Read MoreThe Robert Nero Controversy (1983- )

Mohammed Ali “Nicholas” Said (1836-1882)

Image Ownership: Public domain Mohammed Ali “Nicholas” Said, an enslaved African from Bornu in what is now northeastern Nigeria, traveled through Europe to the United States. He was born in Kouka, Bornu, the thirteenth of nineteen children to Barca Gana and his wife, Dalia, in … Read MoreMohammed Ali “Nicholas” Said (1836-1882)