Independent Historian

Robert Fikes, Jr., a 1970 graduate of Tuskegee Institute, earned graduate degrees in modern European history and library science at the University of Minnesota. A reference librarian at San Diego State University where he is also subject bibliographer for Africana Studies and for American, Middle Eastern, and African history, Fikes has published journal articles, essays, encyclopedia entries, bibliographies, and monographs pertaining to history and literature.

Go Anyplace But Here, Please: The Fight to Train Black Nurses in San Diego

In the article below, Independent Historian Robert Fikes describes a little-known civil rights campaign in the late 1920s to desegregate the nursing staff in San Diego area hospitals. The campaign for racial justice in San Diego and the United States is often portrayed as a … Read MoreGo Anyplace But Here, Please: The Fight to Train Black Nurses in San Diego

Paschal Beverly Randolph (1825-1875)

The influential 19th century spiritualist and author Paschal Beverly Randolph was born October 8, 1825 in New York City. According to contemporary researchers he was likely the illegitimate son of William Randon, a white man, and Flora Clark, an African American woman. Soon abandoned by … Read MorePaschal Beverly Randolph (1825-1875)