The Black Maroons of Florida (1693-1850)

The Black Maroons of Florida, also known as Black Seminoles, Seminole Maroons, and Seminole Freedmen, were a community derived from Runaway slaves who integrated into American Indian culture. They were mostly Gullah fugitives who escaped from the rice plantations in South Carolina and Georgia who … Read MoreThe Black Maroons of Florida (1693-1850)

Blacks and the Texas Revolution (1835-1836)

As American settlers moved westward in the mid 19tth century they encountered the vast Mexican territory of Texas y Coahuila. Sparsely populated with fertile land, this Mexican territory was attractive to American land speculators, southern plantation owners, and slave traders. Landowners could cultivate cotton, rice, … Read MoreBlacks and the Texas Revolution (1835-1836)

Black Cowboys in the 19th Century West (1850-1900)

The earliest evidence of African Americans as cattle herders (cowboys) in North America can be traced back to colonial South Carolina, where stock grazers from what is now Senegal in West Africa were specifically brought to that colony because of their unique skills. They were … Read MoreBlack Cowboys in the 19th Century West (1850-1900)

African Americans in the California Gold Rush (1848-1860)

The California Gold Rush, from 1848 to 1860, began after gold was discovered by carpenter and sawmill operator James W. Marshall on January 24, 1848. After Marshall’s discovery, thousands of people came to the goldfields in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains in Northern … Read MoreAfrican Americans in the California Gold Rush (1848-1860)

North from Mexico: The First Black Settlers in the U.S. West

The first Black settlers in what is now the western United States were Spanish speakers who came north from what is now central Mexico. Their roots there began in 1519, when Black men were among the Spanish conquistadores who invaded and destroyed the Aztec Empire, … Read MoreNorth from Mexico: The First Black Settlers in the U.S. West

Haïtien Immigration to the U.S. (1972- )

Although Haïtien individuals have been coming to what is now the United States both as enslaved and free people since the colonial era, the single largest group of Haïtien immigrants arrived in 1972, thus initiating a movement that continues to this day. In 1972 thousands … Read MoreHaïtien Immigration to the U.S. (1972- )

First Africans in the Jamestown Colony (1619)

In 1619, 12 years after the first permanent English colony was established at Jamestown, Virginia, a small cargo of enslaved Africans arrived at the colony at Comfort Point near present-day Hampton, Virginia. Until recently, historians had misconstrued the circumstances of how this human cargo came … Read MoreFirst Africans in the Jamestown Colony (1619)

Ignacio Jacinto Villa Fernández (1911-1971)

Composer, master pianist Ignacio Jacinto Villa Fernández, known by the stage name Bola de Nieve, was born Ignacio Jacinto Villa Fernández on September 11, 1911, in Guanabacoa, Cuba, to Domingo Villa, a chef, and Inés Fernández, a professional rumba dancer. The couple had 12 children. … Read MoreIgnacio Jacinto Villa Fernández (1911-1971)