The Philadelphia Plan (1967-1970)

The Philadelphia Plan was a federal affirmative action program established in 1967 to racially integrate the building construction trade unions through mandatory goals for nonwhite hiring on federal construction contracts. Declared illegal in 1968, a revised version was successfully defended by the Nixon Administration and … Read MoreThe Philadelphia Plan (1967-1970)

Edwin Bancroft Henderson (1883-1977)

Sports historian, educator, administrator, coach, athlete, and civil rights activist, Dr. Edwin Bancroft Henderson was a pioneer promoter of African American involvement in sports and physical education. Edwin, the son of William and Louisa Henderson, was born on November 24, 1883.  His father was a … Read MoreEdwin Bancroft Henderson (1883-1977)

Trinity African Methodist Episcopal Church (1890- )

(Photo Courtesy of Paul Vincent) The Trinity African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church is the oldest continuously operating black church in Utah.  Trinity AME was organized in 1890 by Rev. T. Saunders when Salt Lake City was the capital of Utah Territory.  The early date of … Read MoreTrinity African Methodist Episcopal Church (1890- )

The Inkwell, Santa Monica, California (1905-1964)

The Inkwell was a popular beach for African Americans in Southern California through the middle decades of the Twentieth Century.  The beach at Bay Street fanning out a block to the north and south was derogatorily called “The Inkwell” by nearby Anglos in reference to … Read MoreThe Inkwell, Santa Monica, California (1905-1964)

Spottswood William Robinson (1916-1998)

Spottswood William Robinson III, a prominent federal judge during the Civil Rights era, was born on July 26, 1916 in Richmond, Virginia.  His father was Spottswood William Robinson Jr., a lawyer and businessman, and his mother was Inez Clements.  The younger Robinson attended Armstrong High … Read MoreSpottswood William Robinson (1916-1998)