Second Emancipation Proclamation (1962)

Civil Rights Leaders with President John F. Kennedy at the White House, 1962 “Image Ownership: Public Domain” The Second Emancipation Proclamation was an envisioned executive order proposed by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and other leaders of the civil rights movement which they urged President … Read MoreSecond Emancipation Proclamation (1962)

The Philadelphia Plan (1967-1970)

The Philadelphia Plan was a federal affirmative action program established in 1967 to racially integrate the building construction trade unions through mandatory goals for nonwhite hiring on federal construction contracts. Declared illegal in 1968, a revised version was successfully defended by the Nixon Administration and … Read MoreThe Philadelphia Plan (1967-1970)

Blockbusting

Blockbusting refers to the practice of introducing African American homeowners into previously all white neighborhoods in order to spark rapid white flight and housing price decline. Real estate speculators have historically used this technique to profit from prejudice-driven market instability. After intentionally placing an African … Read MoreBlockbusting