First Indian Home Guard Regiment (1862-1865)

The First Indian Home Guard Regiment was a tri-racial Union regiment first organized in Kansas in May 1862. The regiment was made up of Creek and Seminole Indians, African Creeks and African Seminoles with white officers commanding the unit.  Though their numbers were few, the … Read MoreFirst Indian Home Guard Regiment (1862-1865)

Negro Repertory Company (Seattle) 1936-1939

The Negro Repertory Company (NRC) was established in 1936 by Florence and James Burton, directors of the Seattle Repertory Playhouse (SRP), as the Negro unit of the Federal Theatre Program, a part of the WPA. In its short life it produced ambitious and controversial plays … Read MoreNegro Repertory Company (Seattle) 1936-1939

Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company

Image Ownership: Public Domain Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, the largest black-owned insurance company in the west, was founded by William Nickerson, Jr., Norman Oliver Houston and George Allen Beavers, Jr. On July 23, 1925 they opened as the Golden State Guarantee Fund Insurance … Read MoreGolden State Mutual Life Insurance Company

National Welfare Rights Organization (1966-1975)

The National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO) was created in 1966  to fight for greater assistance and control over welfare regulations. In the 1950s, politicians and journalists drew attention to the rapid increases in the welfare rolls, especially among African American single mothers. Punitive laws were … Read MoreNational Welfare Rights Organization (1966-1975)

Alvin Ailey Dance Theater

The Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater began in 1958 in New York City, New York as a repertory company of seven African American dancers performing both Ailey’s work and also classic modern pieces. They were soon acknowledged as the preeminent dance company articulating African American … Read MoreAlvin Ailey Dance Theater

United Black Front (UBF) or Black United Front (BUF)

The United Black Front (also known as the Black United Front) was created in the late 1960s as a coalition of 50 black power organizations seeking to address four major objectives: the elimination of white oppression, increased economic and political power for blacks, better education … Read MoreUnited Black Front (UBF) or Black United Front (BUF)

The Advocate, Portland, Oregon (1903-1936)

Image Ownership: Public Domain “With this issue The Advocate makes its initial bow to the Portland public as an independent, non-partisan, non-sectarian weekly newspaper for the intelligent discussion and authentic diffusion of matter appertaining to the colored people, especially of Portland and the State of … Read MoreThe Advocate, Portland, Oregon (1903-1936)

Tuskegee Airmen

Over the past seven decades the exploits of the Tuskegee Airmen have been celebrated, occasionally mythologized, and used as a recent reminder of the patriotism and heroism of African Americans in times of national crisis.  Mounting pressure by black leaders such as union activist A Philip … Read MoreTuskegee Airmen