National Welfare Rights Organization (1966-1975)

The National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO) was created in 1966  to fight for greater assistance and control over welfare regulations. In the 1950s, politicians and journalists drew attention to the rapid increases in the welfare rolls, especially among African American single mothers. Punitive laws were … Read MoreNational Welfare Rights Organization (1966-1975)

United Black Front (UBF) or Black United Front (BUF)

The United Black Front (also known as the Black United Front) was created in the late 1960s as a coalition of 50 black power organizations seeking to address four major objectives: the elimination of white oppression, increased economic and political power for blacks, better education … Read MoreUnited Black Front (UBF) or Black United Front (BUF)

Tuskegee Airmen

Over the past seven decades the exploits of the Tuskegee Airmen have been celebrated, occasionally mythologized, and used as a recent reminder of the patriotism and heroism of African Americans in times of national crisis.  Mounting pressure by black leaders such as union activist A Philip … Read MoreTuskegee Airmen

League of Struggle for Negro Rights (1930-1936)

The League of Struggle for Negro Rights (LSNR) was the primary civil rights organization of the American Communist Party (CP) during the early-to-mid 1930s. Founded in St. Louis in 1930 after the dissolution of the American Negro Labor Congress, the group established regional branches throughout … Read MoreLeague of Struggle for Negro Rights (1930-1936)

Fannie Jackson Coppin Club

The Fannie Jackson Coppin Club was established in 1899 by members of the Beth Eden Baptist Church, one of Oakland, California’s oldest African American religious institutions (est. 1889).  The club was named in honor of Fannie Jackson Coppin (1837-1913) who was born a slave in … Read MoreFannie Jackson Coppin Club

Christian Friends for Racial Equality

Active from 1942 to 1970, the Christian Friends for Racial Equality (CFRE) was a locally founded leader in the Seattle civil rights movement. CFRE’s non-confrontational social methods for improving race relations made it Seattle’s largest civil rights organization in 1956, with 1,000 members by 1959. … Read MoreChristian Friends for Racial Equality

Central Area Motivation Program (1964- )

In the spring of 1964, before Congress passed the Economic Opportunity Act, a group of Central Area residents and friends created a comprehensive anti-poverty proposal which was presented in the autumn of 1964 at a mass meeting called by the Seattle Urban League and the … Read MoreCentral Area Motivation Program (1964- )

Black Soldiers at Fort Huachuca, Arizona During World War II

Before 1941 about 4,000 black soldiers (and a handful of African American officers) served in the 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments (the “Buffalo Soldiers”), two of the all-black units formed after the Civil War.  Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, the number of … Read MoreBlack Soldiers at Fort Huachuca, Arizona During World War II