Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church (1864- )

Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, established 1864, was the first African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E. church) in the state of Mississippi and the site for T.W. Stringer Grand Lodge of Freemasonry for the State of Mississippi in Vicksburg founded by Rev. T.W. Stinger in 1867, as … Read MoreBethel African Methodist Episcopal Church (1864- )

Rocky Fork Underground Railroad Community (1816- )

In 1816, Rocky Fork near Godfrey, Illinois, was established by four free African American families who purchased five adjacent parcels of land and built homes and a church that soon became a large-scale secret Underground Railroad station for escaped enslaved people fleeing to safety from … Read MoreRocky Fork Underground Railroad Community (1816- )

A Brief History of African American Suburbanization

Although Black Americans have lived on the outskirts of major American cities since colonial times, Black suburbanization, that is the significant presence of African Americans in suburban communities, is a post-1960 phenomenon. The modern American suburb is a 20th century development as homebuilders, responding to … Read MoreA Brief History of African American Suburbanization

Adolphus Cunningham Hailstork III (1941- )

Postmodern Composer, pianist, conductor Adolphus Cunningham Hailstork III, who has penned more than 250 works, was born on April 17, 1941, in Rochester, New York, to Lora Hailstork and Adolphus Cunningham Hailstork Jr. However, he was reared in Albany, New York. He has one sister, … Read MoreAdolphus Cunningham Hailstork III (1941- )

African Americans on Western Cattle Drives (1867-1885)

Post-Civil War cattle drives from Texas north to railroad depots in Missouri, Kansas, and Colorado were a necessary part of the American economy in the late 19th century. The nation’s growing demand for beef, coupled with the concentration of beef cattle in Texas, led that … Read MoreAfrican Americans on Western Cattle Drives (1867-1885)

African Americans in the California Gold Rush (1848-1860)

The California Gold Rush, from 1848 to 1860, began after gold was discovered by carpenter and sawmill operator James W. Marshall on January 24, 1848. After Marshall’s discovery, thousands of people came to the goldfields in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains in Northern … Read MoreAfrican Americans in the California Gold Rush (1848-1860)

The Lawrence Massacre: Quantrill’s Raid on Lawrence, Kansas (1863)

On Friday, August 21, 1863, the Lawrence Massacre, also known as Quantrill’s Raid, took place. It was a battle between the Free Staters of Lawrence and the supporters of slavery living in Missouri. The result of this bloody confrontation was the death of about 190 … Read MoreThe Lawrence Massacre: Quantrill’s Raid on Lawrence, Kansas (1863)

Black Collegiate Education in the United States (1828-2019)

Over a century before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 opened colleges and universities to all students, public and private colleges were established in the United States to meet the educational needs of African Americans. These institutions, now called Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), … Read MoreBlack Collegiate Education in the United States (1828-2019)