The Enforcement Act of 1870 (1870-1871)

In the five years following the Civil War, the U.S. Congress passed and the states ratified the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution. These amendments permanently ended slavery and granted African Americans access to civil rights and suffrage as citizens of the United … Read MoreThe Enforcement Act of 1870 (1870-1871)

The First South Carolina Volunteer Infantry Regiment (1862-1866)

The First South Carolina Volunteer Infantry was the first officially recognized black unit of the Union Army during the Civil War. It was quietly authorized by President Abraham Lincoln and organized in August of 1862. The regiment reached its full complement of 1,000 men and was mustered in during … Read MoreThe First South Carolina Volunteer Infantry Regiment (1862-1866)

The South Sudanese Civil War (2013- )

The South Sudanese Civil War is an ongoing civil war in South Sudan fought between government forces led by President Salva Kiir and the SPLM-IO (Sudan People’s Liberation Movement In Opposition). The conflict began in 2013 when Kiir dismissed his vice president Riek Machar from office after … Read MoreThe South Sudanese Civil War (2013- )

The Mozambican Civil War (1977-1992)

The Mozambican Civil War was a 15-year conflict that occurred between May 30, 1977 and October 4, 1992 in the southern African country of Mozambique.  Although ostensibly an internal civil war, the conflict was in fact a proxy war between the Soviet Union which backed the Mozambican government and the … Read MoreThe Mozambican Civil War (1977-1992)

Robert Morris, Sr. (1823-1882)

Robert Morris became one of the first black lawyers in United States after being admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1847. Morris was born in Salem, Massachusetts on June 8, 1823.   At an early age, Morris had some formal education at Master Dodge’s School in Salem.  With the agreement … Read MoreRobert Morris, Sr. (1823-1882)

Andrew Jackson Smith (1843-1932)

Andrew Jackson Smith was the last black Civil War soldier to receive a Medal of Honor. Smith was born on September 3, 1843, into slavery to Susan, an enslaved African American woman, and her white owner, Elijah Smith, in Lyon County, Kentucky. When his father enlisted in the Confederate army, … Read MoreAndrew Jackson Smith (1843-1932)

John Brown (1800-1859)

John Brown was a controversial figure who played a major role in leading the United States to civil war. He was a devout Christian and lifelong abolitionist who tried to eradicate slavery from the United States through increasingly radical means. Unlike most abolitionists, Brown was not a pacifist and he … Read MoreJohn Brown (1800-1859)