The Battle of Honey Springs, Indian Territory (1863)

Few people recognize that the Civil War extended into Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). The largest battle in the Territory, the Battle of Honey Springs, took place on July 17, 1863, when Confederate and Union forces clashed near Honey Springs, Indian Territory. Although three of the … Read MoreThe Battle of Honey Springs, Indian Territory (1863)

The Battle of the Crater, Petersburg, Virginia (June 15-18, 1864)

The Richmond-Petersburg campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia during the third year of the Civil War. The campaign consisted of nine months of trench warfare in which Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant, General George C. Meade, and Major General … Read MoreThe Battle of the Crater, Petersburg, Virginia (June 15-18, 1864)

The Enforcement Act of 1870 (1870-1871)

In the five years following the Civil War, the U.S. Congress passed and the states ratified the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution. These amendments permanently ended slavery and granted African Americans access to civil rights and suffrage as citizens of the United … Read MoreThe Enforcement Act of 1870 (1870-1871)