Rocky Fork Underground Railroad Community (1816- )

In 1816, Rocky Fork near Godfrey, Illinois, was established by four free African American families who purchased five adjacent parcels of land and built homes and a church that soon became a large-scale secret Underground Railroad station for escaped enslaved people fleeing to safety from … Read MoreRocky Fork Underground Railroad Community (1816- )

St. Frances de Sales School (1896-1970); St. Emma Military Academy (1899-1972)

Belmead is an historic plantation located near Powhatan, Virginia. The plantation’s main residence, a two-story Gothic revival style structure, was built about 1845 and designed by the architect Alexander Jackson Davis. In 1860, 124 enslaved people toiled on the plantation and over 130 were buried … Read MoreSt. Frances de Sales School (1896-1970); St. Emma Military Academy (1899-1972)

Black Cowboys in the 19th Century West (1850-1900)

The earliest evidence of African Americans as cattle herders (cowboys) in North America can be traced back to colonial South Carolina, where stock grazers from what is now Senegal in West Africa were specifically brought to that colony because of their unique skills. They were … Read MoreBlack Cowboys in the 19th Century West (1850-1900)

The Lawrence Massacre: Quantrill’s Raid on Lawrence, Kansas (1863)

On Friday, August 21, 1863, the Lawrence Massacre, also known as Quantrill’s Raid, took place. It was a battle between the Free Staters of Lawrence and the supporters of slavery living in Missouri. The result of this bloody confrontation was the death of about 190 … Read MoreThe Lawrence Massacre: Quantrill’s Raid on Lawrence, Kansas (1863)