Independent Historian

Zuzanna Wisniewska became fascinated with U.S. history after immigrating to Washington State in 2008 from Poland. As a student at the University of Washington, Zuzanna had the opportunity to study under Professor Quintard Taylor, Founder of, and contribute multiple biographical entries of prominent African American figures to the site. Zuzanna graduated in 2020 with a Bachelor of Arts in History and a Minor in Diversity. She is pursuing her J.D. at the Pepperdine University Caruso School of Law with an interest in the intersections of law and history.

Samuel Emanuel Ebbesen (?- )

Lieutenant General Samuel Ebbesen is a retired three-star United States Army general.  Ebbesen was born in Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands but the date of his birth is unknown as are the facts of his early life.  He eventually moved to the mainland United States, settled in New York … Read MoreSamuel Emanuel Ebbesen (?- )

Robert Earl Gray (1941-2011)

Lieutenant General Robert Earl Gray was the first African American to become the Commanding General of the United States Army Signal Corps and the first African American Commander of Fort Gordon, Georgia, which conducts advanced training for military occupational specialties. The United States Army Signal Corps (USASC) was … Read MoreRobert Earl Gray (1941-2011)

Henry Doctor, Jr. (1932-2007)

Lieutenant General Henry Doctor, Jr. was a three-star general who achieved the highest rank among the 13 General Officers who have been commissioned through South Carolina State University’s Bulldog Battalion. South Carolina State’s ROTC program has been a leading producer of officers for the United States Armed … Read MoreHenry Doctor, Jr. (1932-2007)

Southwestern Colored Cowboys Association (1940s-1950s)

The Southwestern Colored Cowboys Association (SCCA) was formed in the late 1940s by black cowboys to create a space for African Americans to compete in rodeo events. The SCCA was a minor league that provided aspiring black cowboys with a venue to compete and exhibit their skills … Read MoreSouthwestern Colored Cowboys Association (1940s-1950s)

Andrew P. Chambers, Jr. (1931-2017)

Andrew Phillip Chambers, Jr. was a retired Lieutenant General in the United States Army. His brother Lawrence Chambers was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy and together the Chambers brothers are the first black siblings to hold flag ranks together in the United States military. Andrew … Read MoreAndrew P. Chambers, Jr. (1931-2017)