Bruce L. Mouser is professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. He has authored numerous articles on African and African-American history, with the latter focusing on either the African slave trade or black settlement in upper Mississippi River towns. He is a recognized authority on the history of commerce along the upper Guinea Coast before the imposition of colonialism. His most recent book, For Labor, Race, and Liberty: George Edwin Taylor, His Historic Run for the White House, and the Making of Independent Black Politics (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2011) chronicles the life of the first Black American to run for the office of president of the United States.
Image Courtesy of Bruce L. Mouser In the essay below, Bruce L. Mouser, Emeritus Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, describes the conflicting goals of African Creoles, African Americans, and British and American colonizationists in the fate of the Rio Pongo Valley … Read MoreAfricans, African Americans, Great Britain and the United States: The Curious History of the Rio Pongo in the Early 19th Century