Samuel Adjai (or Ajayi) Crowther was the first bishop
of Niger and the first Black bishop in the Anglican Church. As a teen, he was abducted into slavery then
traded and sold a number of times before being rescued by Anglican
missionaries. He went on to become an
explorer, translator, and abolitionist.
Crowther was born into a prominent family in the
western Nigerian village of Osogun, part of the Yoruba tribe. In 1821 his village was raided, and Crowther
was captured into slavery, eventually ending up on a Portuguese slave ship in nearby
Lagos. A British vessel, on the lookout for slave trafficking, intercepted the
ship and freed the slaves including Crowther.
They were transported to Freetown, Sierra Leone, a British colony
established as a rescue home for liberated Africans. It was there that
Crowther, under the supervision of the Anglican Church Missionary Society, was
educated and baptized.
In 1841 Crowther
was invited by the British Society for the Extinction of the Slave Trade and the
Civilization of Africa to take part in an expedition up the Niger River with
the aim of suppressing slave trading activities and spreading Christianity in
the area. Although the expedition proved
to be unsuccessful, Crowther kept a detailed journal of the trip that would
earn him worldwide acclaim as a missionary. As a result of his efforts, he was
summoned to England and in 1843 was ordained into the Anglican Church.
Crowther took part in two more expeditions, in 1854
and 1857, both of which met with varying success. He also wrote the first Yoruba dictionary and
continued to preach and establish missionary settlements in southwest Nigeria,
most notably at Abeokuta. His efforts were applauded by the Anglican church,
and on St. Peter’s Day 1864 in England’s Canterbury Cathedral, Crowther was
consecrated the first Bishop of Niger.
Samuel Crowther always preached a strong anti-slavery
message, and his missionary work and attempts to ‘civilize’ African peoples
were part of a broader abolitionist movement taking place among Anglican
Protestants and Quakers at the time. Although Crowther cooperated extensively
with the British colonial government, he also believed that the education of
African peoples was vital to their gaining success in their own right. He often persuaded missionary boards to promote
education and finance the development of new African schools.
Crowther was married twice and had six children. His grandson Herbert Samuel Macaulay was a
nationalistic politician and strongly opposed British colonial rule.