The Symbionese Liberation Army (1973–1975)

The Symbionese Liberation Army Self-Portrait, 1973 "Image Ownership: Public Domain" Coming from the biological term symbiosis, meaning the interdependence of different species, the Symbionese Liberation Army was a radical leftist revolutionary organization that sought to unify all left-wing struggles under one banner. The Berkeley, California-formed … Read MoreThe Symbionese Liberation Army (1973–1975)

Anne Forrester Holloway (1941- 2006)

"Image Ownership: Public Domain" Anne Forrester Holloway was appointed U.S. Ambassador to Mali on November 6, 1979 by President Jimmy Carter. She was the first African American woman to hold that post.   Forrester was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on June 2, 1941.  She attended public schools … Read MoreAnne Forrester Holloway (1941- 2006)

Combahee River Collective (1974-1980)

The Combahee River Collective, founded by black feminists and lesbians in Boston, Massachusetts in 1974, was best known for its Combahee River Collective Statement. This document was one of the earliest explorations of the intersection of multiple oppressions, including racism and heterosexism. For the first … Read MoreCombahee River Collective (1974-1980)

National Negro Convention Movement (1831-1864)

After more than a decade of organized abolition among northern free blacks, a group of prominent free African American men organized the National Negro Convention Movement.  The convention movement among northern free blacks symbolized the growth of a black activist network by the mid-nineteenth century.  … Read MoreNational Negro Convention Movement (1831-1864)

Thomas Mboya (Joseph Odhiambo) (1930-1969)

Image Ownership: Public Domain Tom Mboya, born on August 15, 1930 in Kilimambogo, Kenya on a sisal plantation estate, was a Kenyan nationalist, trade union leader, and government minister. His parents were Luo agricultural workers who, as recently converted Catholics, sent him to mission schools … Read MoreThomas Mboya (Joseph Odhiambo) (1930-1969)

Maxwell Curtis, Jr. Stanford (aka Muhammad Ahmad, 1941 – )

Image Courtesy of Dr.Muhammad Ahmad (Maxwell C. Stanford Jr.) Maxwell Curtis Stanford, Jr., known since 1970 as Muhammad Ahmad, is a civil rights activist and was a founder of the Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM), a black power organization active during the 1960s. Born on July … Read MoreMaxwell Curtis, Jr. Stanford (aka Muhammad Ahmad, 1941 – )

Obafemi Awolowo (1909-1985)

Chief Obafemi Awolowo in Washington, D.C., March 20, 1956 Image ©Jim Mahan/Bettmann/Corbis Nigerian nationalist, politician, lawyer, statesman, and chancellor, Chief Jeremiah Obafemi Awolowo was born on March 6, 1909 in Ogun State, Nigeria, where he commenced his political career. Awolowo attended various local schools in Ogun … Read MoreObafemi Awolowo (1909-1985)

Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) 1965

The Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) was founded by Malcolm X, John Henrik Clarke, and other black nationalist leaders on June 24, 1964 in Harlem, New York. Formed shortly after his break with the Nation of Islam, the OAAU was a secular institution that sought … Read MoreOrganization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) 1965