Marian R. Croak (1955- )

Marian R. Croak has contributed to the expansion of technology, especially Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP), throughout her career. Croak attended the University of California and Princeton University, graduating with a Ph.D. in Qualitative Analysis and Social Psychology in 1982. Little is known about the … Read MoreMarian R. Croak (1955- )

Gloria Twine Chisum (1930- )

An experimental psychologist, Gloria Twine Chisum is primarily known for developing protective eyewear for pilots in extreme conditions. Chisum was born in Muskogee, Oklahoma in 1930. She grew up in Muskogee but then attended Howard University where she earned an undergraduate degree in psychology in 1951 and completed an MS in psychology … Read MoreGloria Twine Chisum (1930- )

Philip B. Downing (1857-1934)

During the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century, Philip Bell Downing successfully filed at least five patents with the United States Patent Office. Among his most significant inventions were a street letter box (U.S. Patent numbers 462,092 and 462,093) and a mechanical device for operating street … Read MorePhilip B. Downing (1857-1934)

William Chester Ruth (1882-1971)

William Chester Ruth was an African American inventor, business owner, and community leader in Chester County, Pennsylvania.  Ruth was the son of Samuel and Maria Louisa Pinn-Ruth.  The 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment liberated Samuel, a former slave, when it occupied Savannah, Georgia in 1865 while … Read MoreWilliam Chester Ruth (1882-1971)