National Equal Rights League (1864–1921)

Founded in Syracuse, New York in 1864, the National Equal Rights League (NERL) promoted full and immediate citizenship for African Americans. Created during the Civil War, the League based its call for full citizenship as compensation for military service in the Revolutionary and Civil Wars. … Read MoreNational Equal Rights League (1864–1921)

Afro-American Council (1898-1907)

Afro-American Council Annual Meeting, Oakland, California, 1907 Online Archive of Ca., Bancroft Library The Afro-American Council (AAC) was established in Rochester, New York, in September 1898 by newspaper editor T. Thomas Fortune and Bishop Alexander Walters of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church.  They envisioned … Read MoreAfro-American Council (1898-1907)

Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) 1965

The Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) was founded by Malcolm X, John Henrik Clarke, and other black nationalist leaders on June 24, 1964 in Harlem, New York. Formed shortly after his break with the Nation of Islam, the OAAU was a secular institution that sought … Read MoreOrganization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) 1965

National Medical Association (1895- )

Dr. Montague Cobb, President of the National Medical Association, 1960 Image Courtesy of Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University The National Medical Association (NMA) was founded in 1895 by African American physicians as an alternative to the white-only American Medical Association. It was created by twelve … Read MoreNational Medical Association (1895- )

African Democratic Rally (1946- )

African Leaders at RDA Conference at Bamako, 1957 Image Ownership: Public Domain The African Democratic Rally, known as Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (RDA), was the first French-speaking Pan-African organization.  Created in 1946 at Bamako, Sudan (now Mali), it emerged when African nationalist and anti-colonialist movements were … Read MoreAfrican Democratic Rally (1946- )

Atlanta Negro Voters League

Atlanta Negro Voters Image Ownership: Public Domain League, 1949 The Atlanta Negro Voters League (ANVL) was a political organization which focused on mobilizing the strength of black voters in Georgia’s capital city from the late 1940s to the early 1960s. After a 1946 court ruling … Read MoreAtlanta Negro Voters League

Black Studies Association (Kokujin Kenkyu no Kai) of Japan

Martin Luther King’s Why We Can’t Wait in Japanese Image Ownership: Public Domain Nukina Yoshitaka, a scholar in American literature, wrote that he was motivated to found the Black Studies Association in Tokyo, Japan in October of 1954 because he believed Japanese under United States … Read MoreBlack Studies Association (Kokujin Kenkyu no Kai) of Japan

National Black Feminist Organization (1973-1976)

Poster: National Black Feminist Organization on Feminist Revolution Image Ownership: Public Domain Founded in May 1973, the National Black Feminist Organization (NBFO) addresses the double burden of sexism and racism faced by black women. The first meeting took place in New York City, New York … Read MoreNational Black Feminist Organization (1973-1976)