The Robert Nero Controversy (1983- )

Black Descendant of Cherokee Freedman Image Ownership: Public domain The Robert Nero controversy refers to a late 20th Century case involving the issue of Indian identity among Cherokee Freedmen, the blacks who culturally identify with the Cherokee Nation.  The controversy began with a legal class … Read MoreThe Robert Nero Controversy (1983- )

James v. Marinship (1944)

Marinship Workers, ca. 1943 Image Ownership: Public Domain James v. Marinship was a California Supreme Court decision that ruled that jobs requiring labor union membership could not exclude blacks or other racial groups.  The Marinship Corporation operated various shipyards and was involved in the building … Read MoreJames v. Marinship (1944)

Leonard “Kip” Rhinelander Trial (1925)

Image Ownership: Public Domain The New Rochelle, New York annulment trial of Leonard “Kip” Rhinelander and his wife, Alice Jones Rhinelander, was a much-publicized issue in the 1920s which highlighted white America’s definitions of race, class, and marriage.     Alice Jones was the daughter of … Read MoreLeonard “Kip” Rhinelander Trial (1925)

Lawrence A. Nixon (1883-1966)

Image Ownership: Public Domain Dr. Lawrence Aaron Nixon was born in Marshall, Texas and graduated from Wiley College (l902) and Meharry Medical College (l906). He began his medical practice in Cameron, Texas but moved to El Paso in l909. In l9l0, he was joined in … Read MoreLawrence A. Nixon (1883-1966)

Wysinger v. Crookshank, 1888

  Image Ownership: Public Domain Wysinger v. Crookshank is the first case that rendered school segregation of African Americans in California contrary to the law. On October 1, 1888, 58-year-old Edmond Wysinger, a former slave who bought his freedom working in the California mines, moved … Read MoreWysinger v. Crookshank, 1888