African Americans and the Manhattan Project, Richland, WA (1942-1945)

Black Workers at Hanford, 1944 Image Ownership: Public domain Between the years of 1942 and 1944 around fifteen thousand blacks and fifty thousand whites were recruited to the Manhattan/ Hanford Project in Richland, Washington. The federal government required government contractor, DuPont, to keep the number … Read MoreAfrican Americans and the Manhattan Project, Richland, WA (1942-1945)

Indian Severalty (The Dawes and Curtis Acts) and Black Indian Freedmen

Black Descendant of Cherokee Freedman Image Ownership: Public domain In the late nineteenth century, black Indian freedmen were uniquely affected by the Indian Severalty Acts. Black freedmen had lived in the Indian Territory since before the Civil War, with many having originally come as slaves. … Read MoreIndian Severalty (The Dawes and Curtis Acts) and Black Indian Freedmen

The Robert Nero Controversy (1983- )

Black Descendant of Cherokee Freedman Image Ownership: Public domain The Robert Nero controversy refers to a late 20th Century case involving the issue of Indian identity among Cherokee Freedmen, the blacks who culturally identify with the Cherokee Nation.  The controversy began with a legal class … Read MoreThe Robert Nero Controversy (1983- )

The Three-Fifths Clause of the United States Constitution (1787)

The Practical Impact of the Three Fifths Clause to the U.S. Constitution "Image Ownership: Public Domain" Often misinterpreted to mean that African Americans as individuals are considered three-fifths of a person or that they are three-fifths of a citizen of the U.S., the three-fifths clause … Read MoreThe Three-Fifths Clause of the United States Constitution (1787)