Indian Severalty (The Dawes and Curtis Acts) and Black Indian Freedmen

Black Descendant of Cherokee Freedman Image Ownership: Public domain In the late nineteenth century, black Indian freedmen were uniquely affected by the Indian Severalty Acts. Black freedmen had lived in the Indian Territory since before the Civil War, with many having originally come as slaves. … Read MoreIndian Severalty (The Dawes and Curtis Acts) and Black Indian Freedmen

The Robert Nero Controversy (1983- )

Black Descendant of Cherokee Freedman Image Ownership: Public domain The Robert Nero controversy refers to a late 20th Century case involving the issue of Indian identity among Cherokee Freedmen, the blacks who culturally identify with the Cherokee Nation.  The controversy began with a legal class … Read MoreThe Robert Nero Controversy (1983- )

James v. Marinship (1944)

Marinship Workers, ca. 1943 Image Ownership: Public Domain James v. Marinship was a California Supreme Court decision that ruled that jobs requiring labor union membership could not exclude blacks or other racial groups.  The Marinship Corporation operated various shipyards and was involved in the building … Read MoreJames v. Marinship (1944)

Apartheid (1948-1994)

Apartheid Sign, ca. 1980 Image Ownership: Public Domain Apartheid is the name of the racial institution that was established in 1948 by the National Party that governed South Africa until 1994.  The term, which literally means “apartness,” reflected a violently repressive policy designed to ensure … Read MoreApartheid (1948-1994)

Leonard “Kip” Rhinelander Trial (1925)

Image Ownership: Public Domain The New Rochelle, New York annulment trial of Leonard “Kip” Rhinelander and his wife, Alice Jones Rhinelander, was a much-publicized issue in the 1920s which highlighted white America’s definitions of race, class, and marriage.     Alice Jones was the daughter of … Read MoreLeonard “Kip” Rhinelander Trial (1925)