Republic of New Africa (1968- )

The Republic of New Africa (RNA) is a black nationalist organization that was created in 1969 on the premise that an independent black republic should be created out of the southern United States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, which were considered “subjugated … Read MoreRepublic of New Africa (1968- )

Movimento Negro Unificado (1978- )

The Movimento Negro Unificado (MNU) or Unified Black Movement, the most notable black civil rights organization in Brazil, was founded in São Paulo, Brazil in 1978 by Thereza Santos and Eduardo Oliveira de Oliveira. The founders along with other black activists in Brazil found influence … Read MoreMovimento Negro Unificado (1978- )

Milton A. Galamison (1923-1988)

Milton Arthur Galamison, minister and civil rights activist, was the leader of New York City’s school integration movement in the 1960s.  Born and raised in Philadelphia, where he experienced poverty and hostile racial relations that influenced his later activism, Galamison received a B.A. with honors … Read MoreMilton A. Galamison (1923-1988)

Afro-American Council (1898-1907)

The Afro-American Council (AAC) was established in Rochester, New York, in September 1898 by newspaper editor T. Thomas Fortune and Bishop Alexander Walters of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church.  They envisioned the organization as a revival of the earlier National Afro-American League (NAAL), which … Read MoreAfro-American Council (1898-1907)

South African Students’ Organization (SASO)

The South African Students’ Organization (SASO) emerged in 1968 as a unique group that re-established opposition to the South African government’s apartheid system “aboveground,” as opposed to other black resistance movements that previously had been forced to operate underground.  Until the creation of SASO in … Read MoreSouth African Students’ Organization (SASO)

Ligue Universelle pour la Défense de la Race Noire (1924)

George Marke, Prince Kojo Tovalou-Houenou, and Marcus Garvey, 1924 Image Ownership: Public Domain The Ligue Universelle pour la Défense de la Race Noire (LUDRN) was a Pan-African association created on April 30, 1924, by Kojo Tovalou Houénou, known as Tovalou, descendant of the last king … Read MoreLigue Universelle pour la Défense de la Race Noire (1924)

Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR)

On June 1, 1956, all NAACP offices in Alabama were forced to close, as a result of Attorney General John Patterson’s nine-year injunction against the civil rights organization. This left a void in local civil rights leadership and a desperate need for a new group … Read MoreAlabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (ACMHR)

Black Studies Association (Kokujin Kenkyu no Kai) of Japan

Nukina Yoshitaka, a scholar in American literature, wrote that he was motivated to found the Black Studies Association in Tokyo, Japan in October of 1954 because he believed Japanese under United States military control had a commonality with African Americans, as both groups had their … Read MoreBlack Studies Association (Kokujin Kenkyu no Kai) of Japan