Third Congo Civil War (1998-2003)

Boy Soldiers in the Congo, 2000 Image Ownership: Public domain The Third Congo Civil War—also known as Africa’s World War—was a five-year conflict that occurred primarily in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Nine African countries eventually became involved in the war other than the DRC: Angola, Chad, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi. … Read MoreThird Congo Civil War (1998-2003)

Laurent-Désiré / Kabila, Laurent Kabila (1939–2001)

Image Ownership: Public domain Laurent-Désiré Kabila, or Laurent Kabila, was born in 1939 and was murdered on January 16, 2001. Beginning in May 1997, he was the leader of a rebellion against the President of Zaire, Mobutu Sese Seko. Following this insurrection, he became President … Read MoreLaurent-Désiré / Kabila, Laurent Kabila (1939–2001)

Gail Dennise Mathieu (1951?- )

Ambassador Gail Dennise Mathieu with Niger Officials in Niamey, Niger, 2003 “Image Ownership: Public Domain” Gail Dennise Mathieu, a career member of the Senior Foreign Service, was appointed United States Ambassador to Niger by President George W. Bush in 2002. She remained in Niamey, the … Read MoreGail Dennise Mathieu (1951?- )

(1968) Toivo Herman Ja Toivo, “Freedom for Namibia”

By 1968 the freedom struggle for Namibia was a two year old guerilla war against South African control of the region. That struggle was directed by the Southwest African People’s Organization (SWAPO).  In the address below which was originally published in April, 1968, Toivo Herman … Read More(1968) Toivo Herman Ja Toivo, “Freedom for Namibia”