The Mozambican Civil War (1977-1992)

The Mozambican Civil War was a 15-year conflict that occurred between May 30, 1977 and October 4, 1992 in the southern African country of Mozambique.  Although ostensibly an internal civil war, the conflict was in fact a proxy war between the Soviet Union which backed the Mozambican government and the … Read MoreThe Mozambican Civil War (1977-1992)

Leo Lythel Robinson (1937–2013)

“Image Courtesy of David Bacon” A rank-and-file activist in the International Longshore & Warehouse Union (ILWU), Leo Robinson was best known for fighting apartheid by helping lead a massive boycott of South African cargo that galvanized anti-apartheid movement in California‘s San Francisco Bay Area in … Read MoreLeo Lythel Robinson (1937–2013)

Tulinabo Salama Mushingi (1957 – )

“Image Ownership: Public Domain” Dr. Tulinabo S. Mushingi was the U.S. Ambassador to the West African nation of Burkina Faso.  After nomination by President Barack Obama and his confirmation by the U.S. Senate, Mushingi arrived in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, and began serving … Read MoreTulinabo Salama Mushingi (1957 – )

John Andrew Burroughs Jr. (1936–2014)

John Andrew Burroughs Jr. was an equal opportunity advocate and diplomat who was born in Washington, D.C. on July 31, 1936. He spent his youth in Washington, D.C. before moving to the Midwest to attend the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa.  While there … Read MoreJohn Andrew Burroughs Jr. (1936–2014)

Johnnie Carson (1943- )

“Image Ownership: Public Domain” Johnnie Carson is a retired diplomat who served as United States Ambassador to Uganda (1991-1994), U.S. Ambassador to Zimbabwe (1995-1997), and U.S. Ambassador to Kenya (1999-2003). Carson was born on April 7, 1943 in Chicago, Illinois. After attending public schools in … Read MoreJohnnie Carson (1943- )

African Cowboys on the Argentine Pampas: Their Disappearance from the Historical Record

Following the introduction of cattle into the Caribbean in 1493, during Christopher Columbus’s second voyage, cattle ranching proliferated along a series of frontiers across the grasslands of North and South America. While historians have recognized that Africans and their descendants were involved in the establishment … Read MoreAfrican Cowboys on the Argentine Pampas: Their Disappearance from the Historical Record