(1890) George Washington Williams’s Open Letter to King Leopold on the Congo

  Image Ownership: Public Domain George Washington Williams, “An Open Letter to His Serene Majesty Leopold II, King of the Belgians and Sovereign of the Independent State of Congo By Colonel, The Honorable Geo. W. Williams, of the United States of America,” 1890 Good and … Read More(1890) George Washington Williams’s Open Letter to King Leopold on the Congo

Joseph-Désiré/ Mobutu, Sese Seko Kuku Waza Banga Mobutu (1930-1997)

Joseph Mobutu, named Joseph-Désiré Mobutu at birth, was the second president of Zaire (now called the Democratic Republic of Congo) from 1965 to 1997.  Mobutu was born in 1930 in the Belgian Congo and studied journalism. In 1958, Mobutu became the country’s state secretary and … Read MoreJoseph-Désiré/ Mobutu, Sese Seko Kuku Waza Banga Mobutu (1930-1997)

(1959) Patrice Lumumba, “African Unity and National Independence”

By 1959 Patrice Lumumba was the most prominent nationalist and independence leader in the Congo.  His fame was also spreading beyond the nation’s boundaries as reflected in this speech given at the closing session of the International Seminar organized by the Congress for the Freedom … Read More(1959) Patrice Lumumba, “African Unity and National Independence”

(1971) Sese Seko Mobutu, “Address to the Conseil Nationale Extraordinaire, Dakar, 14 February 1971”

Sese Seko Ngbendu Waza Banga Mobutu, originally known as Joseph Desire Mobutu, served as Patrice Lumumba’s private secretary before being appointed Chief of Staff and second in command of the army when the Congo received its independence in 1960.  In November 1965 Mobuto led a … Read More(1971) Sese Seko Mobutu, “Address to the Conseil Nationale Extraordinaire, Dakar, 14 February 1971”

(1958) Patrice Lumumba, “Speech at Accra”

On December 11, 1958, 34 year old Patrice Lumumba, president of the Congolese National Movement, spoke at the Assembly of African Peoples, an international Pan African Conference sponsored by Kwame Nkrumah, the Prime Minister of newly independent Ghana.  His remarks appear below.  Two years later … Read More(1958) Patrice Lumumba, “Speech at Accra”

(1885) General Act of the Conference of Berlin

General Act of the Conference of Berlin Berlin, Germany Signed February 26, 1885 CHAPTER I DECLARATION RELATIVE TO FREEDOM OF TRADE IN THE BASIN OF THE CONGO, ITS MOUTHS AND CIRCUMJACENT REGIONS, WITH OTHER PROVISIONS CONNECTED THEREWITH Article I The trade of all nations shall … Read More(1885) General Act of the Conference of Berlin