(1964) Nnamdi Azikiwe, “Tribalism: A Pragmatic Instrument for National Unity”

In 1963  Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe was selected as the first President of Nigeria.  The following year he gave a public lecture on the benefits of tribalism in forging national unity  in the Princess Alexandra Auditorium at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.  His lecture delivered on … Read More(1964) Nnamdi Azikiwe, “Tribalism: A Pragmatic Instrument for National Unity”

(1966) Amilcar Cabral, “The Weapon of Theory”

In 1966 Amilcar Cabral was the Secretary-General and President of the War Council of the P.A.I. G. C. (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde). In January 1966 he delivered an address to the first Tricontinental Conference of the peoples of Asia, … Read More(1966) Amilcar Cabral, “The Weapon of Theory”

(1966) Julius Nyerere, “The Dilemma of the Pan-Africanist”

In 1966 Julius Kambarage Nyerere was President of the Republic of Tanzania.  When President Kenneth Kaunda of neighboring Zambia became the first Chancellor of the University of Zambia when it was inaugurated on July 13, 1966 he invited Nyerere, also the Chancellor of the University … Read More(1966) Julius Nyerere, “The Dilemma of the Pan-Africanist”

(1967) Milton Obote, “Language and National Identification”

Image Ownership: Public Domain Milton Apollo Obote was the first Prime Minister of Uganda from the time of its independence in 1962 until 1966 when he became President of the Republic of Uganda.  In 1967 Obote gave a speech on language and nation building at … Read More(1967) Milton Obote, “Language and National Identification”

(1968) Chinua Achebe, “The Duty and Involvement of the African Writer”

In 1967 Chinua Achebe, one of Nigeria’s most prominent writers, supported the secession of Biafra from the Nigerian nation.  In this 1968 speech he describes why he supported the breakaway state in its attempt to achieve independence.    It is clear to me that an … Read More(1968) Chinua Achebe, “The Duty and Involvement of the African Writer”

(1968) Toivo Herman Ja Toivo, “Freedom for Namibia”

By 1968 the freedom struggle for Namibia was a two year old guerilla war against South African control of the region. That struggle was directed by the Southwest African People’s Organization (SWAPO).  In the address below which was originally published in April, 1968, Toivo Herman … Read More(1968) Toivo Herman Ja Toivo, “Freedom for Namibia”

(1970) Amilcar Cabral, “National Liberation and Culture”

In a speech celebrating the life of  Dr. Eduardo Mondlane, leader the Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO) who was assassinated by Portuguese agents on February 3, 1969, Amilcar Cabral, leader of the liberation movement in Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde, described the role of indigenous culture in … Read More(1970) Amilcar Cabral, “National Liberation and Culture”

(1971) Sese Seko Mobutu, “Address to the Conseil Nationale Extraordinaire, Dakar, 14 February 1971”

Sese Seko Ngbendu Waza Banga Mobutu, originally known as Joseph Desire Mobutu, served as Patrice Lumumba’s private secretary before being appointed Chief of Staff and second in command of the army when the Congo received its independence in 1960.  In November 1965 Mobuto led a … Read More(1971) Sese Seko Mobutu, “Address to the Conseil Nationale Extraordinaire, Dakar, 14 February 1971”

(1972) M. Gatsha Buthelezi, “My Role Within Separate Development Politics”

In a speech before the Scandinavian Institute for African Affairs, Uppsala, Sweden, in December, 1972, Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi, then the Chief Executive Officer of the KwaZulu Territorial Authority, describes his cooperation with South African leaders despite his opposition to the country’s apartheid system.  The speech … Read More(1972) M. Gatsha Buthelezi, “My Role Within Separate Development Politics”

(1973) Desmond Tutu, “God-given Dignity and the Quest for Liberation”

By the early 1970s South African cleric Desmond Mpilo Tutu had not yet achieved worldwide fame as an opponent of Apartheid.  Nonetheless, in a July 1973 paper delivered to the National Conference of the South African Council of Churches, Tutu explained to his audience the … Read More(1973) Desmond Tutu, “God-given Dignity and the Quest for Liberation”