(1964) Nnamdi Azikiwe, “Tribalism: A Pragmatic Instrument for National Unity”

In 1963  Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe was selected as the first President of Nigeria.  The following year he gave a public lecture on the benefits of tribalism in forging national unity  in the Princess Alexandra Auditorium at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.  His lecture delivered on … Read More(1964) Nnamdi Azikiwe, “Tribalism: A Pragmatic Instrument for National Unity”

(1962) Nnamdi Azikiwe, “The Future of Pan Africanism”

By 1962 Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904-1996) was a well-known independence leader in Nigeria.  As President of the Nigerian Senate he was one of the most powerful individuals in the government of the young nation.  Azikiwe, like Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Leopold Senghor of Senegal, and Jomo … Read More(1962) Nnamdi Azikiwe, “The Future of Pan Africanism”

(1919) Orishatuke Faduma, “Not Failure But Low Aim is Crime”

Orishatuke Faduma, born James Davies in Sierra Leone, was a late 19th and early 20th Century African nationalist.  He studied at both London University and Yale University in the 1880s and eventually became a follower of Pan-Africanist Edward W. Blyden.  Faduma also helped Chief Alfred … Read More(1919) Orishatuke Faduma, “Not Failure But Low Aim is Crime”

(1902) Rev. Mojola Agbebi, “Inaugural Sermon”

Rev. Dr. Mojola Agbebi, born April 10, 1860 as David Brown Vincent in Western Nigeria, was a leading proponent of “Ethiopianism,” which advocated an African-centered Christianity.  In the 1880s, as an indication of his embrace of African culture he changed his name to Mojola Agbebi.   … Read More(1902) Rev. Mojola Agbebi, “Inaugural Sermon”

(1972) M. Gatsha Buthelezi, “My Role Within Separate Development Politics”

Image Ownership: Public Domain In a speech before the Scandinavian Institute for African Affairs, Uppsala, Sweden, in December, 1972, Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi, then the Chief Executive Officer of the KwaZulu Territorial Authority, describes his cooperation with South African leaders despite his opposition to the country’s … Read More(1972) M. Gatsha Buthelezi, “My Role Within Separate Development Politics”

(1973) K.M.N. Guzana, “On Being a South African”

In 1973 attorney K.M.N. Guzana was leader of the opposition Democratic Party in the national legislature of the theoretically independent nation of Transkei, one of the former homelands created by South Africa to contain the black population and thus reduce their “majority” status in the … Read More(1973) K.M.N. Guzana, “On Being a South African”

(2009) Barack Obama, “A New Beginning Between the United States and the Muslim World”

On June 4, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama delivered a major speech addressing the relationship between the United States and the Muslim World at Cairo University in Cairo, Egypt. The text of the speech appears below. Thank you very much. Good afternoon. I am honored … Read More(2009) Barack Obama, “A New Beginning Between the United States and the Muslim World”

(1973) Desmond Tutu, “God-given Dignity and the Quest for Liberation”

Image Courtesy of Michael Collopy By the early 1970s South African cleric Desmond Mpilo Tutu had not yet achieved worldwide fame as an opponent of Apartheid.  Nonetheless, in a July 1973 paper delivered to the National Conference of the South African Council of Churches, Tutu … Read More(1973) Desmond Tutu, “God-given Dignity and the Quest for Liberation”

(1973) Lucy Mvubelo, “My Plea to the International Labor Organization”

By the 1970s Lucy Mvubelo had become a powerful force in the black South African Labor Union Movement. Born in Johannesburg in 1920 she first joined the Garment Workers Union in 1946 and eventually became the first black woman on the National Executive Council of … Read More(1973) Lucy Mvubelo, “My Plea to the International Labor Organization”

(1974) M. Gatsha Buthelezi, “Towards Black Fulfillment”

Image Ownership: Public Domain Mangosuthu Gatsha Buthelezi emerged in the 1970s as one of the moderate black leaders in South Africa’s anti-apartheid campaign.  In 1970 he was appointed leader of the KwaZulu Territorial Authority and in 1975 he created the Inkatha Freedom Party which drew … Read More(1974) M. Gatsha Buthelezi, “Towards Black Fulfillment”