(1959) Patrice Lumumba, “African Unity and National Independence”

By 1959 Patrice Lumumba was the most prominent nationalist and independence leader in the Congo.  His fame was also spreading beyond the nation’s boundaries as reflected in this speech given at the closing session of the International Seminar organized by the Congress for the Freedom … Read More(1959) Patrice Lumumba, “African Unity and National Independence”

(1959) Sekou Touré, “The Political Leader Considered as the Representative of a Culture”

On October 2, 1958 Sekou Touré, proclaimed Guinea’s independence from France and became its first president.  One year later he gave a speech in Conakry, the capital in which he outlined the role of political leaders in reflecting and developing the culture of their nations.   … Read More(1959) Sekou Touré, “The Political Leader Considered as the Representative of a Culture”

(1960) Patrice Lumumba, “National Radio Address”

The political situation in the Congo deteriorated rapidly after it gained independence on June 30, 1960.  By July Belgian paratroopers had arrived in Stanleyville, the capital of Katanga province, attacking the Congolese army and police in a bid to aid the province in resisting the … Read More(1960) Patrice Lumumba, “National Radio Address”

(1960) Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, “Independence Day”

On Saturday, October 1, 1960, Nigeria became an independent nation.  What follows is Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa’s speech delivered at Tafawa Balewa Square in Lagos at the Independence Ceremony.   Today is Independence Day. The first of October 1960 is a date to which for … Read More(1960) Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, “Independence Day”

(1961) Albert Luthuli, “Nobel Peace Prize Acceptance Speech”

Image Ownership: Public Domain In December 1960, Albert Luthuli, President of the African National Congress of South Africa, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in the struggle against apartheid.  The South African government however, refused to allow Luthuli to leave the country … Read More(1961) Albert Luthuli, “Nobel Peace Prize Acceptance Speech”

(1962) Nelson Mandela, “Address at the Conference of the Pan-African Freedom Movement of East and Central Africa”

In January 1962, Nelson Mandela, the emerging leader of the South African campaign against apartheid, spoke at a convention of Pan African advocates meeting in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  In that speech he outlined the history of the freedom struggle that he would one day personify. … Read More(1962) Nelson Mandela, “Address at the Conference of the Pan-African Freedom Movement of East and Central Africa”

(1962) Nnamdi Azikiwe, “The Future of Pan Africanism”

By 1962 Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904-1996) was a well-known independence leader in Nigeria.  As President of the Nigerian Senate he was one of the most powerful individuals in the government of the young nation.  Azikiwe, like Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Leopold Senghor of Senegal, and Jomo … Read More(1962) Nnamdi Azikiwe, “The Future of Pan Africanism”

(1963) Es’kia (Ezekiel) Mphahlele, “On Negritude in Literature”

Es’kia Mphahlele was a South African writer, professor, and political activist who was critical of the nation’s apartheid regime.  He subsequently spent twenty years in exile from South Africa between 1957 and 1977.  In the speech below, given in Johannesburg, South Africa in June, 1963, … Read More(1963) Es’kia (Ezekiel) Mphahlele, “On Negritude in Literature”

(1963) Haile Selassie, “Towards African Unity”

On May 25, 1963 the Organization for African Unity (OAU) was established with a permanent headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, was selected as the first President of the OAU.  His acceptance speech appears below. This is indeed a momentous and … Read More(1963) Haile Selassie, “Towards African Unity”

(1963) Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, “Addis Ababa”

What follows is the speech by Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa on the occasion of the creation of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) at Addis Abba, Ethiopia, on May 24, 1963. Your Imperial Majesty, Mr. President, Your Excellencies, First, I want to express the thanks … Read More(1963) Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, “Addis Ababa”