Sistema de Castas (1500s-ca. 1829)

Sistema de Castas (or Society of Castes) was a porous racial classification system in colonial New Spain (present-day Mexico). It was a “hierarchal ordering of racial groups according to their proportion of Spanish blood.” In this system, notable categories with significant meaning were español (Spaniard), … Read MoreSistema de Castas (1500s-ca. 1829)

Operation Crossroads Africa (1958- )

Operation Crossroads Africa (OCA), founded in 1958 by Dr. James H. Robinson, is a non-profit organization which provides individuals with a seven-week experience in Africa. Founded on the principle that cultural immersion is possible through working and living inside Africa, their core values are to … Read MoreOperation Crossroads Africa (1958- )

Black Studies Association (Kokujin Kenkyu no Kai) of Japan

Nukina Yoshitaka, a scholar in American literature, wrote that he was motivated to found the Black Studies Association in Tokyo, Japan in October of 1954 because he believed Japanese under United States military control had a commonality with African Americans, as both groups had their … Read MoreBlack Studies Association (Kokujin Kenkyu no Kai) of Japan

The African Civilization Society (1858-1869)

The African Civilization Society (ACS) was founded in 1858 by Henry Highland Garnet who sought to encourage blacks Americans to emigrate to Africa. Garnet envisioned educated black Americans moving to the African Continent as cultural missionaries to lead the economic, political, and moral development of … Read MoreThe African Civilization Society (1858-1869)

African Military Slaves in the Muslim Middle East

In the following article Professor Emeritus Jere L. Bacharach, a specialist in Medieval Middle Eastern history, describes the little known saga of one of the largest groups of persons of African descent in the region, military slaves.  These enslaved men, utilized for centuries in the … Read MoreAfrican Military Slaves in the Muslim Middle East

Frente Negra Brasileira (1931-1938)

Frente Negra Brasileira (Brazilian Black Front) originated in the city of São Paulo, Brazil on September 16, 1931, and was the first Afro-Brazilian organization demanding full participating rights in Brazilian society. Headquartered in São Paulo, it spread around the country. Its complex structure included a … Read MoreFrente Negra Brasileira (1931-1938)

African National Congress (ANC)

The African National Congress (ANC) was formed in South Africa on January 18, 1912, when a group of Africans, Colored, and Indians convened a meeting in Bloemfontein to create the South African Native National Congress.  The name was officially changed to the African National Congress … Read MoreAfrican National Congress (ANC)

Victoria Pioneer Rifle Corps (1861-1865)

In 1859, the all-white volunteer fire department of Victoria, British Columbia refused blacks in their ranks. Therefore, some blacks volunteered their services to Governor James Douglas as a militia unit. Concerns over an imminent Indian War and a dispute between Britain and the United States … Read MoreVictoria Pioneer Rifle Corps (1861-1865)