South African Students’ Organization (SASO)

The South African Students’ Organization (SASO) emerged in 1968 as a unique group that re-established opposition to the South African government’s apartheid system “aboveground,” as opposed to other black resistance movements that previously had been forced to operate underground.  Until the creation of SASO in … Read MoreSouth African Students’ Organization (SASO)

Tirailleurs Senegalais (1857– )

The Tirailleurs Sénégalais were West African Colonial Army troops who fought for the French during World War I, World War II, and in numerous conquest, police, and colonial counterinsurgency operations. Despite the name, the Tirailleurs Sénégalais were composed of soldiers recruited and conscripted from throughout … Read MoreTirailleurs Senegalais (1857– )

Ligue Universelle pour la Défense de la Race Noire (1924)

The Ligue Universelle pour la Défense de la Race Noire (LUDRN) was a Pan-African association created on April 30, 1924, by Kojo Tovalou Houénou, known as Tovalou, descendant of the last king of Dahomey (now Benin). The headquarters of the association was located in Paris … Read MoreLigue Universelle pour la Défense de la Race Noire (1924)

Sistema de Castas (1500s-ca. 1829)

Sistema de Castas (or Society of Castes) was a porous racial classification system in colonial New Spain (present-day Mexico). It was a “hierarchal ordering of racial groups according to their proportion of Spanish blood.” In this system, notable categories with significant meaning were español (Spaniard), … Read MoreSistema de Castas (1500s-ca. 1829)

Operation Crossroads Africa (1958- )

Operation Crossroads Africa (OCA), founded in 1958 by Dr. James H. Robinson, is a non-profit organization which provides individuals with a seven-week experience in Africa. Founded on the principle that cultural immersion is possible through working and living inside Africa, their core values are to … Read MoreOperation Crossroads Africa (1958- )

Black Studies Association (Kokujin Kenkyu no Kai) of Japan

Nukina Yoshitaka, a scholar in American literature, wrote that he was motivated to found the Black Studies Association in Tokyo, Japan in October of 1954 because he believed Japanese under United States military control had a commonality with African Americans, as both groups had their … Read MoreBlack Studies Association (Kokujin Kenkyu no Kai) of Japan

The African Civilization Society (1858-1869)

The African Civilization Society (ACS) was founded in 1858 by Henry Highland Garnet who sought to encourage blacks Americans to emigrate to Africa. Garnet envisioned educated black Americans moving to the African Continent as cultural missionaries to lead the economic, political, and moral development of … Read MoreThe African Civilization Society (1858-1869)