Tonton Macoutes (Milice Volontaires de la Securite Nationale – MSVN)

The Milice Volontaires de la Sécurité Nationale (MVSN), or the (Militia of) National Security Volunteers was a Haitian paramilitary force founded in 1958 to defend the autocratic and corrupt regime of François “Papa Doc” Duvalier. The MVSN, commonly known as the Tonton Macoutes, was notorious … Read MoreTonton Macoutes (Milice Volontaires de la Securite Nationale – MSVN)

Americo-Liberians

Americo-Liberians are Liberians of African American descent. They trace their ancestry to freeborn and formerly enslaved African Americans who immigrated to Liberia in the 19th century. In 1822, the American Colonization Society (ACS) established the Liberian colony on the West African coast to send freeborn … Read MoreAmerico-Liberians

Organization of African Unity (1963-2002)

The Organization of African Unity (OAU, 1963-2002) was an alliance of independent African nations working to enhance cooperation between the newly decolonized African governments. The alliance had its basis in the Pan-Africanist philosophy encouraging the unity of all peoples of African ancestry, but it also … Read MoreOrganization of African Unity (1963-2002)

Tirailleurs Sénégalais in the Indochina War (1947-1954)

The Indochina War (1947-1954) pitted the French Colonial government against the Vietminh, the Communist Vietnamese devoted to the liberation of their country from French colonial rule.  During that conflict the French used thousands of Tirailleurs Sénégalais, soldiers recruited throughout the French African colonies, for service … Read MoreTirailleurs Sénégalais in the Indochina War (1947-1954)

African Democratic Rally (1946- )

African Leaders at RDA Conference at Bamako, 1957 Image Ownership: Public Domain The African Democratic Rally, known as Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (RDA), was the first French-speaking Pan-African organization.  Created in 1946 at Bamako, Sudan (now Mali), it emerged when African nationalist and anti-colonialist movements were … Read MoreAfrican Democratic Rally (1946- )