Independent Historian

Michael Stolp-Smith is an alumnus of the University of Washington, Seattle with a BFA in PhotoMedia.

Freedmen’s Hospital/Howard University Hospital (1862– )

The Freedmen’s Hospital was founded in 1862 in Washington, D.C.  It was the first hospital of its kind to aid in the medical treatment of former slaves.  Later it became the major hospital for the African American community in Washington, D.C.  The hospital was founded on … Read MoreFreedmen’s Hospital/Howard University Hospital (1862– )

The Hamburg Massacre (1876)

On July 8, 1876, the small town of Hamburg, South Carolina erupted in violence as the community’s African American militia clashed with whites from the surrounding area.  Hamburg was a small all-black community across the river from Augusta, Georgia.  Like many African American communities in … Read MoreThe Hamburg Massacre (1876)

New Orleans Massacre (1866)

The New Orleans Massacre, also known as the New Orleans Race Riot, occurred on July 30, 1866.  While the riot was typical of numerous racial conflicts during Reconstruction, this incident had special significance. It galvanized national opposition to the moderate Reconstruction policies of President Andrew … Read MoreNew Orleans Massacre (1866)

Chubby Checker (Ernest Evans) (1941- )

Chubby Checker, the man credited with inventing “The Twist,” was born Ernest Evans in Spring Gully, South Carolina. He moved to Philadelphia with his parents and two brothers and attended South Philadelphia High School. Evans aspired to become a performer from a young age and … Read MoreChubby Checker (Ernest Evans) (1941- )

Saint Andrews African Methodist Episcopal Church, Sacramento, California (1850- )

St. Andrews African Methodist Episcopal Church of Sacramento, California was founded in 1850, the same year that California was admitted to the union. It stands to this day as the oldest continuous African Methodist Episcopal (AME) congregation on the west coast. The church began humbly, … Read MoreSaint Andrews African Methodist Episcopal Church, Sacramento, California (1850- )