Independent Historian

Adam Rozen-Wheeler earned his B.A. in Jewish Studies from the University of Washington in 2017. While his focus is in Jewish history, he has studied American history (including African American history) at length. In addition to his article contributions to, Adam serves as the website’s grant writer, helping raise funds needed to keep in operation.

Adam grew up in Tacoma, Washington, where he received an Associate’s Degree from Tacoma Community College, and is currently a member of the Orthodox Jewish community in Seattle. He works as a contract grant writer and teacher.

Sharmel Edwards (1962-2012)

Early in the morning on April 21, 2012, Sharmel T. Edwards, a 49-year-old African-American woman, was fatally shot by five Las Vegas, Nevada police officers. Her death occurred while the national discussion of police brutality was gaining publicity in the wake of similar killings and about a year before … Read MoreSharmel Edwards (1962-2012)

Andrew Jackson Smith (1843-1932)

Andrew Jackson Smith was the last Black Civil War soldier to receive a Medal of Honor. Smith was born on September 3, 1843, into slavery to Susan, an enslaved African American woman, and her white owner, Elijah Smith, in Lyon County, Kentucky. When his father enlisted in the Confederate … Read MoreAndrew Jackson Smith (1843-1932)

Paris Dennard (1982- )

Paris Dennard is a prominent conservative Republican strategist and political commentator. He regularly contributes to CNN and NPR and worked in the White House for George W. Bush’s administration. In addition, he is the Director of Strategic Communications for the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, a nonpartisan organization … Read MoreParis Dennard (1982- )

Tarika Wilson (1981-2008)

On January 4, 2008, Tarika Wilson, a 26-year-old African-American woman, was fatally shot by Lima, Ohio, police officer Joseph Chavalia. She was unarmed and holding her one-year-old son, who was injured by the shot that killed his mother. The shooting, and the subsequent acquittal of the officer, highlighted … Read MoreTarika Wilson (1981-2008)

Shantel Davis (1989-2012)

On June 14, 2012, Shantel Davis, a 23-year-old African-American woman, was fatally shot by New York City, New York Police Department (NYPD) officer Phil Atkins. She was unarmed, and her death occurred while the national discussion of police brutality was gaining publicity in the wake of similar killings. That … Read MoreShantel Davis (1989-2012)

Jack Greenberg (1924-2016)

Jack Greenberg was a prominent civil rights lawyer, directing the NAACP Legal Defense Fund (LDF) for 23 years and arguing crucial cases at the U.S. Supreme Court. He was born in New York City, New York, on December 22, 1924, to Jewish immigrant parents Max and Bertha Greenberg. During World … Read MoreJack Greenberg (1924-2016)

Marion, Indiana Lynching (1930)

On August 7, 1930, a mob of ten to fifteen thousand whites abducted three young black men from the jail in Marion, Indiana, lynching  Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith. Sixteen-year-old James Cameron narrowly survived after being beaten by the mob. Lawrence Beitler’s photograph of the two victims’ hanging bodies … Read MoreMarion, Indiana Lynching (1930)

Operations Moses, Joshua, and Solomon (1984-1991)

In three covert military operations, called Moses, Joshua, and Solomon, over twenty thousand Ethiopian Jews were airlifted to Israel to escape hardship. This ancient community, called Beta Israel (House of Israel in English), lived in relative isolation from the rest of the Jewish world for … Read MoreOperations Moses, Joshua, and Solomon (1984-1991)

The Boston Saloon (1864-1875)

William A.G. Brown, Founder of the Boston Saloon Image Ownership: Library of Congress The Boston Saloon, which operated in Virginia City, Nevada, is the only black-owned Western saloon to be the subject of an archaeological excavation. During Virginia City’s heyday in the early 1870s, the … Read MoreThe Boston Saloon (1864-1875)