Johnetta Gladys Richards is a Professor of Africana Studies at San Francisco State University. She holds an undergraduate degree from Virginia State University and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Cincinnati in Ohio. She has presented a number of papers at historical conferences, workshops and forums. Her article is “Fundamentally Determined; James and Esther Jackson and the Southern Negro Youth Congress, 1937-1940” was published in 2008 by Routledge Press.