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World War II

Cole, Harry A. (1921-1999)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public domain

Harry Cole, the first black justice on the Maryland Supreme Court, was born on January 1, 1921, in Washington, D.C., to a tailor and his wife. Shortly after his birth, Cole’s father died, and his mother moved him and his four siblings to her hometown, Baltimore, Maryland. Cole attended Douglass High School, graduating in 1939. Four years later, in 1943, he graduated from Morgan State College with honors. During his senior year at Morgan State, he helped organize the 1942 “March on Annapolis” to protest the Jim Crow laws in Maryland. Cole graduated from Baltimore’s University of Maryland Law School in 1949.

Sources: 
Eric Siegal, “Judge Harry A. Cole,” The Baltimore Sun (Feb. 15, 1999); “Harry Cole Dies,” The Washington Post (Feb. 16, 1999); “Harry A. Cole” at http://msa.maryland.gov/msa/speccol/sc3500/sc3520/012000/012087/html/msa12087.html.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Golden, Lily (1934-2010)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
Image Ownership: Public domain

Liya Oliverovna Golden was the prominent black Russian social activist, scholar, and mother of Russian TV star Yelena Khanga. Liya Golden—also known as “Lily”—was born on July 18, 1934 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. She was a daughter of Oliver Golden and Bertha Golden, who immigrated to the Soviet Union from the United States in 1931. Lily’s father died when she was 6 years old. After her father’s death, Bertha Golden and Lily had planned to return to United States, but due to World War II and Bertha’s lingering fears of racism in the United States, they never left Uzbekistan.

Lily’s Golden racial background, an unusual combination of African American, Native American, Jewish, and Russian ancestry, was, she claimed, the main motivation for her fight against racial injustice. She says: "I belong to all races. I am African American, a Polish Jew, and a Red Indian who became Russian in everything but blood."

Sources: 
Lily Golden, My Long Journey Home (Chicago, Third World Press, 2002); Lily Golden, “Lily Golden Resume”, africana.ru, 2003, http://africana.ru/Golden/info/resume.htm; Lily Golden, “Lily Golden Autobiography”, africana.ru, 2003, http://africana.ru/Golden/info/autobiography.htm;  Lily Golden, “About Lily Golden”, africana.ru, 2003, http://africana.ru/Golden/Lily.htm; Unknown, “Lily Golden, the Russian African-American social activist, has died,” afroeurope.blogpost.com, February 18, 2011, http://afroeurope.blogspot.com/2011/02/lily-golden-russian-african-american.html.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Jones, Richard Lee (1893-1975)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Richard Jones was a decorated military leader, serving in both World Wars I and II, and an early United States Ambassador.

Born Richard Lee Jones on December 21, 1893 in Albany, Georgia, Jones studied at the University of Cincinnati in Ohio, receiving his Bachelor of Science degree (Circa 1914). He then studied law at the University of Illinois, until the outbreak of World War I, when he enlisted in the U.S. Army.  He served in the 317th Engineer Battalion and as a lieutenant in the Military Police (1917-1919).
Sources: 
Chicago Tribune, October 15, 1927, and October 18, 1970; Clovis E. Semmes, The Regal Theater and Black Culture (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006); U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, “Foreign Relations of the United States, 1955-1957,” Volume XVIII, Africa, Documents 141, 145, and 146.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training

Dakar, Senegal (1857- )

Entry Type: 
Places
History Type: 
Global African History

"The Ablest Midwife That Wee Knowe in the Land": Mistress Alice Tilly and the Women of Boston and Dorchester, 1649-1650

In the extended article that appears below historians Daudi Abe and Quintard Taylor explore the history of African Americans in Martin Luther King County from 1858 to 2014.  They analyze the forces which encouraged people of African ancestry to settle in the county and discuss the rapid political, social, and economic changes that its black residents have faced since the first arrival, Manuel Lopes, came to the county in 1858.

With 119,801 people of African ancestry in a total population of 1,931,249 people, Martin Luther King, Jr. County is the most populous county in the state of Washington and is home to 29% of the state’s inhabitants and half of Washington’s black population.  It is also the only county in the United States named after the 20th Century civil rights icon.  

Robinson, John Charles (1903–1954)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
John Charles Robinson, nicknamed the Brown Condor, was an African American aviator who fought with the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force against Benito Mussolini and Fascist Italy during the Second Italian-Ethiopian War, 1935–1936. He is also known as the Father of the Tuskegee Airmen for his contributions to the aviation programs he began at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in the early 1940s.
Sources: 
Philip Thomas Tucker, Father of the Tuskegee Airmen, John C. Robinson (Lincoln, Nebraska: Potomac Books, Inc., 2012) https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&q=Tucker%2C+Phillip+Thomas.+Father+of+the+Tuskegee+Airmen%2C+John+C.%20+Robinson.+Potomac+Books%2C+Inc.%2C+2012.&btnG=&as_sdt=1%2C48&as_sdtp; Thomas E. Simmons, The Man Called Brown Condor: The Forgotten History of an African American Fighter Pilot (New York, New York: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc., 2013) https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Simmons%2C+Thomas+E.+The+Man+Called+Brown+Condor%3A+The+Forgotten+%20History+of+an+African+American+Fighter+Pilot.+Skyhorse+Publishing%2C+Inc.%2C+2013.&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C48.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Monrovia, Liberia (1821- )

Entry Type: 
Places
History Type: 
Global African History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Monrovia is the capital of Liberia as well as its largest city. It is located on Bushrod Island and Cape Mesurado along the Mesurado River. A 2008 census showed its population as 970,824.

Monrovia was founded on April 25, 1822 by members of the American Colonization Society (ACS), an organization created to return U.S.-born former slaves to Africa.  ACS representatives first arrived on the Mesurado River in 1821. The original name of Monrovia was Christopolis. In 1824 it was renamed “Monrovia” after James Monroe, who was the American President at the time as well as a supporter of the American Colonization Society. The indigenous populations of the areas surrounding Monrovia felt that the city was built on stolen land and began attacking it as early as 1822. Those attacks continued sporadically until the mid-nineteenth century.

Monrovia’s first settlers were former Southern slaves. Not surprisingly the early architecture of the city was largely influenced by the style of the Southern antebellum buildings.
Sources: 
James Ciment, Another America (New York: Hill & Wong, 2013); Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (New York: Basic Civitas Books, 1999); “Monrovia,” Encyclopedia Americana, Grolier Online, 2014; Encyclopedia Britannica, Online, 2014; The CIA World Fact Book https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gv.html.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Omohundro, Robert Johnson (1921-2000)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Courtesy of Sargeant Memorial
Chronicles (Winter 2008),
Sargeant Memorial Room,
Pretlow Library, Norfolk, VA
Born in Norfolk, VA in 1921, physicist Robert Johnson Omohundro was one of a select few black scientists and technicians to work on the Manhattan Project and thus contribute to the development of the atom bomb during World War II.  The eldest child of Henry Omohundro and Brownie Pierce Omohundro, Robert had one sister, Gladys and four half-siblings, Joseph, Mildred, Annie Mae, and Dorothy from his father’s first marriage.

Omohundro graduated from Booker T. Washington High School in Norfolk, Virginia and then earned a bachelor's degree in mathematics and a master’s in physics from Howard University in Washington, DC.  After graduation he worked as a radio tester with the Western Electric Company.
Sources: 
Ray Spangenburg and Kit Moster, African Americans in Science, Math, and Invention (New York: Facts on File, 2003); Julius H. Taylor, et al., The Negro In Science (Baltimore: Morgan State University, 1955), Robert B. Hitchings, "Robert J. Omohundro: Local Man Works on the Manhattan Project," Sargeant's Chronicles: Vignettes About Norfolk and Virginia's History and Genealogy 2:3 (Winter 2008).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Case Western Reserve University

Johnson, Raymond L., Sr. (1922-2011)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Raymond Johnson and Family in Los Angeles, 1961
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Sources: 
Elaine Woo, “Raymond L. Johnson Sr. dies at 89; lawyer, civil rights activist,” Los Angeles Times, January 9, 2012; “Tuskegee Airman and Civil Rights Icon Atty. Raymond L. Johnson, Sr. Succumbs,” Los Angeles Sentinel, January 12, 2012; Andie Parrish, “Raymond L.  Johnson, Sr.,” January 20, 2012, www.findagrave.com.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
California State University, Los Angeles

Wertz, Irma Jackson Cayton (1911-2007)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Irma Cayton Wertz on right, 1942
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Irma Jackson Cayton Wertz was a member of the first Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAACS) Officer training class commissioned at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, during World War II.  Born in Brunswick, Georgia, on May 8, 1911, Jackson was the product of a military household.  Her family was stationed in Des Moines while her father, who served as a captain in the segregated army during World War I, attended officer’s training camp.  

After graduating from Fisk University and Atlanta University, Jackson moved to Chicago, Illinois where she gained employment as a social worker in the South Parkway Community Center. There she married her first husband, Horace Cayton, a noted University of Chicago sociologist. The couple divorced in 1942.

The same year, Jackson applied for entrance into the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps.  After successfully passing a battery of examinations, completing a six-week training course, and taking the oath to become an officer in August of that year, Jackson was briefly assigned to the WAAC Headquarters in Washington, D.C. as a recruiter. Shortly thereafter, she relocated to Fort Huachuca, Arizona, where she met and married William Wertz and joined the Thirty-second WAAC Post Headquarters Company.

Sources: 

Robert F. Jefferson, Fighting for Hope:  African American Troops of the 93rd Infantry Division in World War II and Postwar America (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008); Brenda L. Moore, To Serve My Country, To Serve My Race:  The Story of the Only African American WACs Stationed Overseas during World War II (New York: New York University Press, 1996).

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Xavier University

95th Engineer Regiment

Vignette Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
African American History in the West

 

Image Ownership: Public Domain

The African American-manned 95th Engineer Battalion (General Service) was formed in April 1941 at Fort Belvoir, Virginia as part of the U.S. Army buildup preceding World War II.  Unlike many construction units, the 95th received considerable training, participating in the Carolina Maneuvers and receiving practical experience at Camp AP Hill, Virginia, and Fort Bragg, North Carolina.  Expanded to regimental size following Pearl Harbor, it was sent to Canada in June 1942 to assist in building the Alaska-Canada (Alcan) Highway.

Sources: 
Ulysses Lee, The Employment of Negro Troops (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1966); Lael Morgan, “Writing Minorities out of History: Black Builders of the Alcan Highway,” Alaska History, 7:2 (Fall, 1992); Heath Twichell, Northwest Epic: the Building of the Alaska Highway (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992).

 

Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

The Pan-African Congresses, 1900-1945

 

Speakers at The Pan African Congress,
Brussels, Belgium,1921
Image Ownership: Public Domain

In the nearly half century between 1900 and 1945 various political leaders and intellectuals from Europe, North America, and Africa met six times to discuss colonial control of Africa and develop strategies for eventual African political liberation. In the article that follows, historian Saheed Adejumobi describes the goals and objectives of these six Pan African Congresses and assesses their impact on Africa.     

 

Pan-Africanist ideals emerged in the late nineteenth century in response to European colonization and exploitation of the African continent. Pan-Africanist philosophy held that slavery and colonialism depended on and encouraged negative, unfounded categorizations of the race, culture, and values of African people. These destructive beliefs in turn gave birth to intensified forms of racism, the likes of which Pan-Africanism sought to eliminate.

Summary: 
In the nearly half century between 1900 and 1945 various political leaders and intellectuals from Europe, North America, and Africa met six times to discuss colonial control of Africa and develop strategies for eventual African political liberation. In the article that follows, historian Saheed Adejumobi describes the goals and objectives of these six Pan African Congresses and assesses their impact on Africa.
Sources: 

Saheed A. Adejumobi, “The Pan-African Congress,” in Organizing Black America: An Encyclopedia of African American Associations, Nina Mjagkij, ed. (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 2001).

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Seattle University

Thompson, McKinley (1922–2006)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
McKinley Thompson and a Car He Designed for Africa
and the Third World
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
McKinley Thompson, the first major African American car designer, was born on November 8, 1922, in New York City, New York. As a child, Thompson was intrigued with automobiles. In an oral history interview in 2001, he discussed the first time he had seen a car when he was twelve years old, “There were patchy clouds in the sky, and it just so happened that the clouds opened up for the sunshine to come through. It lit that car up like a searchlight.” Thompson later said, “I was never so impressed with anything else in all my life. I knew that that’s what I wanted to do in life—I want[ed] to be an automobile designer.”

In 1940 Thompson graduated from Murray Hill High School in New York City. Following high school, Thompson became a professional draftsman to hone his drawing skills. When the United States entered World War II in 1941, Thompson joined the U.S. Army and began working as an engineering design layout coordinator for the Army Signal Corps, a post he held until 1953.

Sources: 
“The Warrior” on McKinley Thompson, The Henry Ford Blog, 2014, https://www.thehenryford.org/explore/blog/the-warrior; Robert Tate, “McKinley Thompson: The First African American Automotive Designer,” Motor Cities, February 2, 2013, http://www.motorcities.org/Story%20/McKinley+Thompson+The+First+African+American+Automotive+Designer+br+By+Robert+Tate-292.html; “Designer Spotlight: The First African American Automotive Designer is Hired into Ford by Alex Tremulis in 1956,” (Gyronaut X-1, 2015), http://www.gyronautx1.com/live-updates/designer-spotlight-the-first-african-american-automobile-designer-mckinley-thompson-is-hired-into-ford-by-alex-tremulis.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Harare, Zimbabwe (1890- )

Entry Type: 
Places
History Type: 
Global African History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Harare (formerly known as “Fort Salisbury” or “Salisbury”) is the largest city in Zimbabwe with a population of 1.6 million. It serves as Zimbabwe’s seat of government and Zimbabwe’s commercial and industrial center.  The city is located in Northern Zimbabwe in the region of the Shona speaking people.

Cecil Rhodes and the British South African Company (BSAC) founded the settlement as “Fort Salisbury” on September 12, 1890.  The fort began when the BSAC’s Pioneer Column, under the command of Major Frank Johnson, invaded Shona territory and seized land held by the Shona and other indigenous groups. Britain recognized the fort as a colonial municipality in 1897 and in 1923 the settlement became the capital of the Rhodesia Colony which then included both Northern and Southern Rhodesia.  In 1953 Salisbury became the capital of the newly forged Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland which includes the contemporary nations of Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi. After the collapse of the Federation in 1963 Salisbury remained the capital of Southern Rhodesia.
Sources: 
“Harare,” New Encyclopedia of Africa, editors John Middleton and Joseph Miller (Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008); "Robert Mugabe," Contemporary Black Biography, Vol. 71 (Detroit: Gale, 2009); Mary Johnson Osirim, Enterprising Women in Urban Zimbabwe: Gender, Microbusiness, and Globalization (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2002); Oyekan Owomoyela, Culture and Customs of Zimbabwe (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
San Joaquin Delta College

Demby, William (1922-2013)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public domain

The novelist William Edward Demby, Jr. was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on Christmas day, 1922, to William and Gertrude Demby.  He was raised in their family of seven children in the Fairywood district of Pittsburgh’s West Side. The family moved to Clarksburg, West Virginia, shortly after Demby’s graduation from Langley High School.

Sources: 
Melanie Masterson Sherazi, “Introduction,” to William Demby’s novel, King Comus. Berkeley: Ishmael Reed Publishing Company, 2017; Jeff Biggers, “William Demby has not left the Building: Postcard from Tuscany, A Profile,” The Bloomsbury Review Vol 24, #1, 2004; William Yardley, “William Demby, Author of Experimental Novels, Dies at 90,” The New York Times, May 31, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/01/arts/william-demby-novelist-and-reporter-dies-at-90.html.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Davis, Ruth A. (1943 - )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
At the time of her retirement from the United States Foreign Service in 2009, Ambassador Ruth A. Davis was the longest serving Career Ambassador and at the rank of Director General of the Foreign Service, had achieved the highest ranking position in the Foreign Service.  She was also the first African American to do so.

Although born in Phoenix, Arizona, on May 28, 1943, to a former World War II soldier who later became a postal worker and a schoolteacher mother, the family moved to Atlanta, Georgia during her early childhood.  Majoring in Sociology at Spelman College, Davis was awarded a Merrill scholarship which allowed her to study in France for 15 months. While there she travelled throughout Europe and the Middle East.  

Davis graduated magna cum laude from Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia in 1966 and then enrolled at the University of California at Berkeley where she earned a master's degree in social work in 1968.  While at UC Berkeley she served as an intern at the Agency for International Development (AID).  
Sources: 
Candace LaBalle, "Davis, Ruth A. 1943–," Contemporary Black Biography (2003), http://www.encyclopedia.com; Stacy D. Williams, "TLG:  Expanding Opportunities at State," Foreign Service Journal (May 2013), http://www.govexec.com/magazine/magazine-management-profile/2001/11/phoenix-rising/10262/.
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

32nd and 33rd WAACS Headquarters Companies (World War II)

Vignette Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
African American History
WAACS at Fort Huachuca (Courtesy of Fort Huachuca Museum)

Organized in the fall of 1942, Iowa, the all-black Thirty-Second and Thirty-third Women's Auxiliary Army Companies would become the first contingent of WAACS assigned to a military installation in the United States during World War II. Composed of nearly 200 auxiliaries and seven officers, company members completed six weeks of intensive training in Iowa before reporting to Fort Huachuca, Arizona, on December 4, 1942.  At the time, the army post was the largest black military post in the country.  There, the units were assigned to the Ninth Service Command and the post headquarters, respectively.

Under the command of the first group of Fort Des Moines's graduating class of black commissioned officers—Irma Jackson Cayton, Vera Ann Harrison, Frances Alexander, Violet Askins, Natalie Donaldson, Mary Kearney, and Corrie Sherard—auxiliaries ably performed clerical and administrative work as stenographers, typists, telephone switchboard operators, clerks, messengers, reception ists, and motor pool drivers and mechanics.  The positions held by the WAACs and the duties they performed cohered with the racial and gendered employment policies developed by senior Army leaders and Women's Auxiliary Army Corps officials, relieving the men of the U.S. Ninety-third Infantry Division also stationed at the military outpost to undergo extensive field training in the Arizona desert.

Sources: 

Robert F. Jefferson, Fighting for Hope:  African American Troops of the 93rd Infantry Division in World War II and Postwar America (Baltimore:  The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008).  Brenda L. Moore, To Serve My Country, To Serve My Race: The Story of the Only African American WACs Stationed Overseas during World War II (New York: New York University Press, 1996).

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Xavier University

Washington, Jr., James (1909-2000)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West

 

"Image Ownership: Public Domain"

The painter and sculptor James Washington, Jr. was a leading member of the Northwest School, a group of artists, writers, and sculptors who became internationally prominent in the mid-20th Century. Washington was born and raised in Gloster, Mississippi, one of six children of Baptist minister James Washington and his wife, Lizzie.  While Washington was a child, his father fled Mississippi due to threats of violence and the two never met again. 

Washington's mother encouraged his talents. He began to draw around the age of 12, becoming an expert pavement chalk-artist, making random marks by other children into figures and faces. In 1938 at the age of 29 he became involved with the Federal Works Progress Administration when he was employed as an assistant art instructor at the Baptist Academy in Vicksburg, Mississippi.  Excluded from shows in Mississippi that featured white artists, he organized the first WPA-sponsored exhibition for black artists in the state. 

Sources: 
HistoryLink.org Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History, "Washington, James Jr.: Art as Holy Land" (by Deloris Tarzan Ament), http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=5328; Paul Karlstrom, The Spirit in the Stone: The Visionary Art of James W. Washington, Jr. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1989).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
HistoryLink.org

Juneteenth: The Growth of an African American Holiday (1865-- )

Former Texas Slaves Celebrating Juneteenth in Austin, ca. 1900
Image Ownership: Public Domain

In the article below, historian Quintard Taylor describes the origins and evolution of the Juneteenth holiday sine 1865.  

Summary: 
In the article below, historian Quintard Taylor describes the origins and evolution of the Juneteenth holiday since 1865. 
Sources: 
The Texas Emancipation Proclamation, Archives of the Dallas Historical Society, Dallas, Texas; Alwyn Barr, Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971 (Austin, 1973); James M. Smallwood, Time of Hope: Time of Despair: Black Texans During Reconstruction (Port Washington, NY, 1981); Merline Pitre, Through Many Dangers, Toils and Snares: The Black Leadership of Texas, 1868-1900 (Austin, 1985); "Felix Haywood Remembers the Day of Jublio," in Quintard Taylor, ed., From Timbuktu to Katrina: Readings in African-American History, Volume 1, (New York: Thomson Wadsworth, 2008), National Juneteenth Observance Foundation, http://www.njof.com/; National Juneteenth Holiday Campaign, http://www.juneteenth.us/.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Roundtree, Dovey Johnson (1914–2018)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public domain

Born Dovey Mae Johnson on April 17, 1914, in Charlotte, North Carolina, Dovey Johnson Roundtree was an African American civil rights activist, attorney, and ordained minister who won the 1955 Interstate Commerce Commission case on segregated bus terminals. She was the second oldest of four children born to James Elliot Johnson, a printer who worked in the local offices of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, and Lela Bryant Johnson, a domestic and seamstress.

Sources: 
Dovey Johnson Roundtree and Katie McCabe, Justice Older than the Law: The Life of Dovey Johnson Roundtree (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2009); Martha S. Putney, When the Nation Was in Need: Blacks in the Women's Army Corps during World War II (Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1992); J. Clay Smith, Rebels in Law: Voices in History of Black Women Lawyers (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998); Deborah Froling, “Summer Reading: Justice Older Than Law by Katie McCabe and Dovey Johnson Roundtree,” https://ms-jd.org/blog/article/summer-reading-justice-older-law-katie-mccabe-and-dovey-johnson-roundtree.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Black Soldiers and the Ledo Road (1942-1945)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
U.S. and Chinese Soldiers Plant Flags Upon Completion of
the Ledo Road, 1945
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
The Ledo Road, which was later renamed The Stillwell Road in honor of Army General Joseph W. Stillwell, the commander of the China-Burma-India Theater in World War II, was built during World War II in response to the Japanese Army’s capture of the Burma Road, the main route for Allied military supplies between India and China. Without a land route the Allies were forced to fly supplies to the Chinese over the Himalayan Mountains. The 271 mile Ledo Road ran from Ledo, India to a junction on the old Burma Road at Shingbwiyang, Burma. The Ledo Road is considered a wartime engineering miracle due to the obstacles that were presented. Six African-American companies, a headquarters, service, and four combat engineer units, did most of the construction. The United States spent around $149 million dollars to build the road.
Sources: 
Dr. Geraldine Seay, "Black WWII Vet Recalls Terrible Time Building 'Ledo Road,'"Defense.gov News Article: Black WWII Vet Recalls Terrible Time Building 'Ledo Road,' Department of Defense, http://archive.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=25745; Burma Road, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/85526/Burma-Road; "Burma's Stilwell Road: A Backbreaking WWII Project Is Revived, "Los Angeles Times, http://www.latimes.com/world/la-fg-road30-2008dec30-story.html#page=1.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Kansas

Holland, Jerome Heartwell (1916-1985)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Ambassador Jerome Holland and His Wife
Arrive in Stockholm, Sweden in 1970
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Educator, diplomat and businessman, Jerome Heartwell Holland was born on January 9, 1916 in Auburn, New York. The parents of Holland, and that of his twelve other siblings, were Robert Holland, a gardener/carpenter, and Viola Bagby Holland. For the entirety of his life, Holland maintained the nickname “Brud” given to him by a sibling who called him “Brudder” growing up.

Sources: 
Rachel Kranz, African-American Business Leaders and Entrepreneurs (New York: Facts on File, Inc., 2004); New York Public Library, and Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library African American Desk Reference (New York: J. Wiley & Sons, 1999); http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/educator-and-diplomat-jerome-holland; http://auburnpub.com/lifestyles/article_81f428be-72a9-5553-8e54-f9c477f64479.html; http://centralny.ynn.com/content/top_stories/534762/dr--jerome--brud--holland-starts-historic-life-in-auburn/.


Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

McKinney, Herman (1938-2014)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Businessman, educator, community leader, and political activist Herman McKinney was born on October 2, 1938 in Klamichi, Oklahoma to Herman L. and Ozella (Harris) McKinney.  His family moved to Vancouver, Washington when Herman was young child.  His family was part of the Great Migration of African Americans during World War II, who left the South and other regions to find work in the burgeoning war industries that sprang up on the West Coast.
Sources: 
Sanjay Bhatt, “Herman McKinney, 75, dies; African American leader worked for equal opportunity,” Seattle Times, April 13, 2014; “Herman McKinney, Civil Rights Activist, Seattle Businessman,” The Skanner, April 14, 2014; “Obituary: Herman L. McKinney,” The Seattle Medium, April 22, 2014.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
St. Martins University

National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, Inc. (1896)

Vignette Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
African American History

 

"Oklahoma Federation of Colored Women Banner, 1910"
Image Ownership: Public Domain

The National Association of Colored Women's Clubs, Inc. (NACWC), was established in July 1896 as a merger between the National League of Colored Women and the National Federation of Afro-American Women.  The merger enabled the NACWC to function as a national umbrella group for local and regional Black women’s organizations.

The NACWC adopted the motto of “Lifting as We Climb,” promoting self-help among women. During the early years of the organization, the largely educated and middle-class constituency supported temperance, positive images of women through moral purity, and women’s suffrage, issues also pursued by white women’s groups. However, unlike those groups, the NACWC saw their organization in terms of gender and race; viewing their women’s movement as a way to uplift black women, men, and children. For example, the NACWC saw the struggle for suffrage as the right to vote not just for women, but also for black men still disfranchised through the political maneuverings of whites.

Sources: 

Lillian Serece Williams and Randolph Boehm, Records of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs, 1895-1992, A Microfilm Project of University Publications of America, Microfilm Reels; Elizabeth Davis, Lifting as They Climb (Washington D.C.: NACW, 1933); Deborah Gray White, Too Heavy a Load: Black Women in Defense of Themselves, 1894-1994 (New York: Norton, 1998).

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Tacoma

Vanport, Oregon (1942-1948)

Vignette Type: 
Places
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Image Ownership: Public Domain
Vanport, Oregon was the largest WWII federal housing project in the United States, and as such, attracted national attention to the region.  At its peak, Vanport was home to over 42,000 residents, making it the second largest population center in the state.  The housing project was “hidden” beyond Portland’s city limits. For many long-time Portland residents, Vanport was known as the “Negro Project” despite the fact that African Americans were no more than 25% of residents at any given time.

Portland had become, in early 1941, one of the major shipbuilding centers in the United States.  The primary shipbuilder, Henry J. Kaiser, fearful that workers would leave the area due to a lack of housing, purchased 648 acres of land outside of Portland city limits to build a wartime housing complex.  City officials were unhappy with Kaiser’s independent approach, but the contractor had become impatient with the inevitable slowness of municipal government.
Sources: 
Rudy Pearson, “African Americans in Portland, Oregon, 1940-1950: Work and Living Conditions – A Social History” (Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1996) Manley Maben, Vanport (Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1987).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
American River College, Sacramento

The Trillion Dollar African American Consumer Market: Economic Empowerment or Economic Dependency?

"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Sometime in 2013, the African American consumer market exceeded the trillion dollar mark for the first time.  To put this figure in perspective, that market is larger than the market for the entire nation of Spain.  In the article below business historian Robert Weems briefly describes rise of African American purchasing power since the end of slavery and what it means for both black Americans and the entire economy.

Collective African American net income (spending power) now exceeds $1 trillion dollars annually. Because of this economic reality, a wide variety of contemporary companies continually create marketing campaigns to effectively reach this important segment of the U.S. consumer market. Yet, in the not-too-distant past, black consumers were all but ignored in the American marketplace.  This article will provide an overview of this historical (and business) phenomenon.

Summary: 
Sometime in 2013, the African American consumer market exceeded the trillion dollar mark for the first time.  To put this figure in perspective, that market is larger than the market for the entire nation of Spain.  In the article below business historian Robert Weems briefly describes rise of African American purchasing power since the end of slavery and what it means for both black Americans and the entire economy.
Sources: 
Robert E. Weems, Jr., Desegregating the Dollar: African American Consumerism in the Twentieth Century (New York: New York University Press, 1998); Resilient, Receptive and Relevant: The African American Consumer, 2013 Report (New York: The Nielson Company, 2013).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Wichita State University

Dunnigan, Alice Allison (1906–1983)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Alice Allison Dunnigan was the first African American female correspondent at the White House and the first black female member of the Senate and House of Representatives press galleries.

Dunnigan was born April 27, 1906, in Russellville, Kentucky, to Willie and Lena Pitman Allison. Her father worked as a tobacco sharecropper, and her mother took in laundry for a living. At the age of four, she began attending school one day a week and learned to read before entering the first grade. She started writing one-sentence news items for the local Owensboro Enterprise newspaper at age thirteen and completed the ten years of education available to blacks in the segregated Russellville school system.

Sources: 
Alice Allison Dunnigan, A Black Woman's Experience: From Schoolhouse to White House, (New York: Dorrance, 1974); Carol Crowe-Carraco, Women Who Made A Difference (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1989); Nancy J. Dawson, “Alice Allison Dunnigan: Led the Fight for Black Journalists,” The Crisis (July-August 2007), 39-41
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Niamey, Niger (1902- )

Entry Type: 
Places
History Type: 
Global African History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Niamey is the largest city and capital of the West African nation of Niger.  Niamey is located in the southwestern part of the country along the left bank of the Niger River.  Niger is the largest nation within West Africa in terms of physical size, and Niamey is the administrative, economic, and cultural center of the country.

Historians debate the early history of Niamey.  Some argue it was originally a Songhai fishing village named after the local Niami tree, while others maintain it was founded by a Djerma chief named Kouri Mali.  Yet, most agree that the site was inhabited by small numbers of Hausa, Djerma-Songhai, and Wazi peoples before European colonization.

In the late 1890s the French began to colonize Niger.  In 1902, the French built a military fort in Niamey, a small fishing village at the time.  Then, in 1926, the French moved their colonial capital from Zinder to Niamey to facilitate trade along the Niger River with other French territories in West Africa.  
Sources: 
Carina E. Ray, “Niamey, Niger,” Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Dickson Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century African History (London: Routledge, 2003);  Elizabeth Heath, “Niamey, Niger,” Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds., Encyclopedia of Africa (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010);  “Niamey,” R. Hunt Davis, Jr., ed., Encyclopedia of African History and Culture, Volume 5: Independent Africa (1960 to Present) (New York:  Facts on File, Inc., 2005).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Washington State University

Scott, Benjamin Franklin (1922-2000)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Born in Florence, South Carolina, October 19, 1922, Benjamin Franklin Scott was an African-American chemist who worked on the Manhattan Project in World War II.  The son of Benny and Viola Scott, Benjamin had two older sisters, Mary and Rosa.

Scott earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1942 from Morehouse College, a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) located in Atlanta, Georgia. Scott continued his education at the University of Chicago where he earned a Master of Science degree in 1950.

Between the years of 1943-1946, Scott worked as a chemist on the Manhattan Project at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory. The Manhattan Project, one of the most important scientific projects of the 20th century, led to the development of the atomic bomb, which ended World War II. Other notable African-American scientists who worked with Scott at the Chicago laboratory include Harold Delaney, Moddie Taylor, and Jasper Brown Jeffries. Scott – like both Jeffries and Taylor – earned a graduate degree from the University of Chicago, but his came after World War II and his involvement on the Manhattan Project. 

Sources: 
Vivian Ovelton Sammons, Blacks in Science and Medicine (New York: Hemisphere Publishing, 1980); Nuclear Instrument and Chemical Company. http://national-radiation-instrument-catalog.com/new_page_40.htm; Scott, B.F. “Automatic Calculation of Specific Activities from Liquid Scintillation Counter Data Using a Desk-top Computer,” Journal of Radioanalytical Chemistry, 1968, 1(1), 61-71; Scott, B.F. and Kennally, J.R. “Oxygen-tube combustion method for liquid scintillation assay of carbon-14 and tritium,” Analytical Chemistry, 1966, 38(10), 1404-5; Driscoll, W.J.; Scott, B.F.; Huff, E.A. “Radiometric Methods for Industrial Process Control,” From the United States Atomic Energy Commission[Unclassified and Declassified Reports Published by the Atomic Energy Commission and Its Contractors](1961), 62pp; Bessie Joyce Sampson Scott, The State, May 6, 2005.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
College of Wooster

Chester, William H. (1914-1985)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Dr. Martin Luther King with Bill Chester,
January 25, 1963
"Image Courtesy of Anne Rand Library, International
Longshore and Warehouse Union"
William “Bill” Chester, Vice President and Assistant to Harry Bridges, President of the International Longshoremen and Warehouse Union (ILWU), was the highest ranking African American in the ILWU and a leading trade union official and civil rights leader in the San Francisco Bay Area from the 1950s through 1970s.

Born in Shreveport, Louisiana, on January 6, 1914, Chester’s mother’s maiden name was Fuller. Chester, an only child, moved with his parents to Kansas City, Missouri when he was a year old and spent his entire childhood there.  His father, a railroad worker, died when he was 11.  Chester graduated from high school in 1932 and spent two years at Western College in Quindaro, Kansas.

Sources: 
William Chester, Interview by Robert E. Martin, Howard University, July 23, 1969, transcript at ILWU Library, San Francisco; “Bill Chester: ILWU Civil Rights and Community Leader, 1938-1969,” ILWU Oral History Project, Volume VI, Part I, Introduction and interview by Harvey Schwartz, ILWU Dispatcher, February 2003, pp. 8-9; “Bill Chester helped lead ILWU during tough times,” ILWU Dispatcher, November 12, 1985, p. 5.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Western Illinois University

Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC)

Vignette Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
African American History
Fair Employment Practices Committee Meeting, 1942
Image Ownership: Public Domain

On June 25, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802, creating the n Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) to investigate complaints of discrimination and take action against valid complaints in any defense industry receiving government contracts. President Roosevelt signed the executive order only after A. Philip Randolph, working with other civil rights activists, organized the 1941 March on Washington Movement, which threatened to bring 100,000 African Americans to the nation’s capitol to protest racial discrimination. President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802 one week before the proposed March, and in return, Randolph called off the demonstration. However, Randolph continued to fight against discrimination and formed the March on Washington Movement (MOWM) to hold the FEPC accountable.

Sources: 

Merl Elwyn Reed, Seedtime for the Modern Civil Rights Movement: the
President’s Committee on Fair Employment Practice, 1941-1946
, (Baton
Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991); Louis Ruchames, Race,
Jobs & Politics: The Story of FEPC
, (New York: Columbia University
Press, 1953); Herbert Garfinkel, When Negroes March: The March on
Washington Movement in the Organizational Politics for FEPC
(New York:
Athenaeum, 1969).

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Tacoma

Dunjee, Roscoe (1883-1965)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Roscoe Dunjee was a prolific journalist and civil rights activist. He was the son of Rev. John William Dunjee, a Baptist minister, and Lydia Ann Dunjee. Although his father was born in Jefferson County, West Virginia, Roscoe worked for various African American newspapers in Oklahoma while attending Langston University.

In 1915, Dunjee founded his own newspaper in Oklahoma City entitled the Black Dispatch which became one of the most prominent black newspapers in America. Throughout his life, in the Black Dispatch Dunjee wrote confrontational editorials attacking the institution of Jim Crow, encouraged African Americans to vote and fight for their Civil Rights, and named his paper the Black Dispatch because whites had degraded the term to refer to African Americans as gossipers and liars. Dunjee chose to invert the term “black dispatch” as something honorable concerning the image of African Americans.

Sources: 
J. Reuben Sheeler, “Roscoe Dunjee” in Rayford Logan & Michael Winston, Dictionary of American Negro Biography (New York: Norton & Company, 1982), 203-204.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Cincinnati

Africans and African Americans in China: A Long History, A Troubled Present, and a Promising Future?

In the article below independent historian Robin Loftin explores the past, present, and possible future relationship between the world’s most populous nation and people of African ancestry.

Africa and China have had contact for more than a thousand years. Some scholars assert that the contacts began as early as 4th century A.D. but convincing evidence is sporadic or lacking. Beginning with the Tang dynasty (618 A.D. to 907 A.D.) documented evidence of contact and trade exists showing a relationship between China and the city-states of east Africa. This relationship has evolved over the centuries and led to a migration of Africans to China to study, trade, and act as diplomats. At least one account indicates that Du Huan was the first Chinese to visit Africa, probably in Nubia, during the 8th century A.D.

Summary: 
In the article below independent historian Robin Loftin explores the past, present, and possible future relationship between the world’s most populous nation and people of African ancestry.<br /> <br /> Africa and China have had contact for more than a thousand years. Some scholars assert that the contacts began as early as 4th century A.D. but convincing evidence is sporadic or lacking. Beginning with the Tang dynasty (618 A.D. to 907 A.D.) documented evidence of contact and trade exists showing a relationship between China and the city-states of east Africa.  This relationship has evolved over the centuries and led to a migration of Africans to China to study, trade, and act as diplomats. At least one account indicates that Du Huan was the first Chinese to visit Africa, probably in Nubia, during the 8th century A.D.
Sources: 
Don Wyatt, The Blacks of Premodern China (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010); Philip Snow, The Star Raft: China’s Encounter with Africa (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988); Adams Bodomo, Africans in China: A Sociocultural Study and its Implications for Africa-China Relations (Amherst, New York: Cambria Press, 2012); Julie Wilensky, “The Magical Kunlun and ‘Devil Slaves’: Chinese Perceptions of Dark-skinned People and Africa before 1500,” Sino-Platonic Papers 122: 1 (July 2002);Marc Gallicchio, The African American Encounter with Japan and China: Black Internationalism in Asia, 1895 – 1945 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2000); Robin D. G. Kelley and Betsy Esch, “Black Like Mao: Red China and the Black Revolution,” Souls (Fall 1999). http://africansinchina.net/.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Hotesse, Esteban (1919-1945)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public domain

Esteban Hotesse was the only Dominican-born member of the famed Tuskegee Airmen, as well as one of the few people born in a Spanish-speaking nation to serve the United Stated during World War II. Hotesse was born on February 11, 1919, in the town of Moca, Dominican Republic. On November 1, 1923, at the young age of four, he, his mother, and his younger sister departed Moca for New York City, New York. After traveling through Ellis Island, they took up residence in Manhattan. Little is known of Hotesse from this point until he enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps on February, 21, 1942.

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

McKaine, Osceola Enoch (1892-1955)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
Osceola McKaine (3rd From Left) With Staff of his Supper Club
in Ghent, Belgium, ca. 1938
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Civil rights activist Osceola Enoch (“Mac”) McKaine was born in Sumter, South Carolina on December 17, 1892. In 1908, at the age of 16, he moved to Boston, Massachusetts where he attended classes at Boston College.  Later he worked as associate editor of the Cambridge Advocate, a small black newspaper in the neighboring city of Cambridge, Massachusetts.  During the 1912 presidential election, 20-year-old McKaine served as Secretary for the Colored Progressive League of New England.
Sources: 
John Egerton, Speak Now Against the Day: The Generation before the Civil Rights Movement in the South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995); James Felder, Civil Rights in South Carolina: From Peaceful Protests to Groundbreaking Rulings (Gloucestershire, UK: The History Press, 2012); Erik S. Gellman, Death Blow to Jim Crow: The National Negro Congress and the Rise of Militant Civil Rights (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2012).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Knox, Lawrence Howland (1906-1966)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Courtesy of 

Dr. Lawrence Howland Knox, noted chemist, was born on September 30, 1906 in New Bedford, Massachusetts to William Jacob and Estella Knox.   Knox was one of five children, two girls and three boys, and remarkably for that time, all of the boys earned PhDs; the oldest brother, William Jr. also earned a PhD in chemistry, and the younger brother, Clinton, earned a PhD in history.

Knox attended Bates College in Lewiston, Maine for his undergraduate schooling.  He majored in chemistry and played on the school football team.  He graduated in 1928 and began teaching chemistry at Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia.  After teaching at Morehouse for two years Knox attended Stanford and in 1931 attained his Master’s degree.  That same year he married his wife, Hazel and the two had one son.  After receiving his Master’s degree, Knox began teaching at the Agriculture and Technical College of North Carolina in Greensboro, and in 1933 he transferred to North Carolina College for Negroes in Durham.  In 1936 he took another break from teaching and began working for his doctorate at Harvard.  In 1940 he achieved a PhD in organic Chemistry and went back to teaching at North Carolina College.

Sources: 
Leon Gortler and Stephen J. Weininger, “Chemical Relations:  William and Lawrence Knox, African American Chemists” Chemical Heritage Foundation www.chemicalheritage.org; American Men of Science (New York: Jacques Cattel Press, 1955).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Leo Lythel Robinson (1937–2013)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
"Image Courtesy of David Bacon"
A rank-and-file activist in the International Longshore & Warehouse Union (ILWU), Leo Robinson was best known for fighting apartheid by helping lead a massive boycott of South African cargo that galvanized anti-apartheid movement in California's San Francisco Bay Area in 1984.  

Born in Shreveport, Louisiana, on May 26, 1937, to Arthur and Pearl Lee Young, Robinson and his family moved to Oakland during World War II. Both parents worked at Moore Shipyard, one of numerous large shipbuilders in the area’s booming wartime economy. Along with his parents and four siblings, he lived in the Cypress Village housing projects in West Oakland, a segregated ghetto that gave birth to the Black Panther Party two decades later.  

Sources: 
David Bacon, “Leo Robinson: Soul of the Longshore,” In These Times, January 19, 2013, http://inthesetimes.com/working/entry/14448/leo_robinson_soul_of_the_longshore; Peter Cole, “Leo Robinson: leader of the ILWU anti-apartheid struggle,” ILWU Dispatcher 71:1 (January 2013), http://www.ilwu.org/leo-robinson-ilwu-activist-led-anti-apartheid-struggle/; Leo Robinson, Interview by Peter Cole, Raymond, California, July 20, 2011; Leo Robinson, Interview in The Oakland Army Base: An Oral History, ed. by Martin Meeker, The Bancroft Library, University of California, City of Oakland, and Port of Oakland, 2010.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Western Illinois University

Becton, Julius W., Jr. (1926- )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Courtesy of the U.S. Army

U.S. Army Lieutenant General Julius Wesley Becton Jr. was born on June 29, 1926 to Julius and Rose Becton in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. His father worked as a janitor in their apartment building. His mother was a housekeeper and laundress. In December 1943, Julius Becton joined the Army Air Corps Enlisted Reserves. After graduating high school in 1944, Becton joined the active army. It was Becton’s hope that he would become a pilot but was ruled ineligible because of astigmatism.

Though the Army was segregated in 1944, Officer Candidate School was not. Julius Becton and sixteen other African American candidates completed OCS in 1945 and were commissioned as second lieutenants. Shortly after his commissioning, Lt. Becton was assigned to serve in the Philippines.

Upon his return from the Philippines, Becton left the army and attended Muhlenberg College in Allentown, Pennsylvania. In 1948, after President Harry S. Truman had desegregated the military, Becton was accepted for active duty once again and remained in the Army until 1983.  During that period he saw combat duty in Korean and Vietnam. He was also stationed in Germany, the Philippines, France, the Southwest Pacific, and `Japan during his service.  Steadily moving up the ranks, in 1972, Becton was promoted to Brigadier General.

Sources: 

Lt. General Julius W. Becton Jr., Becton: Autobiography of a Soldier and Public Servant (Annapolis, MD: Naval
Institute Press, 2008); Clyde McQueen, The Black Army Officer
(Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse, 2008); Henry E. Dabbs, Black Brass:
Black Generals and Admirals in the Armed Forces of the United States

(Charlottesville, Virginia: Howell Press, 1997); Jessie Carney Smith,
Black Firsts (Canton, Michigan: Visible Ink Press, 2003).

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Juneteenth: The Birth of an African American Holiday

Vignette Type: 
Events
History Type: 
African American History in the West
General Order No. 3, Texas Emancipation
Proclamation, June 19, 1865
Image Ownership: Public Domain
Sources: 
Quintard Taylor, "The Juneteenth Celebration, 1865-1992," Eugene Register-Guard, June 8, 1992, pp. 1D, 4D.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

The Construction of the Alaska Highway, 1942: The Role of Race in the Far North

In the following article independent historians Christine and Dennis McClure describe the role race played in the construction of the Alaska-Canada (ALCAN) Highway during World War II. The highway, constructed in eight months, stretched 1,600 miles from Dawson Creek, British Columbia to Delta Junction, Alaska. It was built by 11,000 soldiers in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  About one third of the soldiers were African Americans organized in three newly formed Negro Regiments, the 93rd Engineer General Service Regiment, 95th Engineer General Service Regiment, and the 97th Engineer General Service Regiment. The 388th Engineer Battalion, formed around a cadre from the 93rd, remained in Yukon in 1943 to build the Canol Road from the Highway to Norman Wells. The account also highlights in particular experiences of these black soldiers which are described further in their new book on the subject, We Fought the Road.

Summary: 
In the following article independent historians Christine and Dennis McClure describe the role race played in the construction of the Alaska-Canada (ALCAN) Highway during World War II. The highway, constructed in eight months, stretched 1,600 miles from Dawson Creek, British Columbia to Delta Junction, Alaska. It was built by 11,000 soldiers in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  About one third of the soldiers were African Americans organized in three newly formed Negro Regiments, the 93rd Engineer General Service Regiment, 95th Engineer General Service Regiment, and the 97th Engineer General Service Regiment. The 388th Engineer Battalion, formed around a cadre from the 93rd, remained in Yukon in 1943 to build the Canol Road from the Highway to Norman Wells. The account also highlights in particular experiences of these black soldiers which are described further in their new book on the subject, We Fought the Road.
Sources: 
Christine and Dennis McClure, We Fought the Road (Seattle: Epicenter Press, 2017); Heath Twichell, The Northwest Epic: The Building of the Alaska Highway (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992); https://www.93regimentalcan.com/.
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Lunceford, Jimmie M. (1902-1947)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Jimmie Lunceford and his Orchestra
Image Ownership: Public domain

James Melvin “Jimmie” Lunceford, a popular band leader during the swing era, was born near Fulton, Mississippi, in Itawamba County to James Leonard and Beulah Idella Tucker Lunceford in June, 1902. His grandparents, Daniel and Gracie Lunceford, had arrived in Mississippi as slaves from North Carolina in 1860.

The Lunceford family moved to Oklahoma around 1910 and then to Denver, Colorado, where they maintained a home for many years. There, Lunceford studied music under Wilberforce Whiteman, the father of Paul Whiteman, a prominent white musician and band leader of the 1920s and 1930s.

Sources: 
Eddy Determeyer, Rhythm Is Our Business: Jimmie Lunceford and the Harlem Express (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006); Leo Walker, The Big Band Almanac (Pasadena: Ward Ritchie Press, 1978); http://itawambahistory.blogspot.com/2007/06/orchestra-leader-jimmie-luncefords.html.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Monnerville, Gaston (1897–1991)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Born in Cayenne, French Guiana to parents Marc Saint-Yves Monnerville and Marie-Françoise Orville, Gaston Monnerville was the grandson of a slave. His family was from Case-Pilote in Martinique, but moved to French Guiana where two sons were born: Pierre and Gaston.

Gaston was a brilliant student at Cayenne High School, and with a fellowship moved to Lycée Pierre-de-Fermat in Toulouse, France in 1912. He resented the cold French winters but his record was excellent especially in Philosophy and Mathematics.  He won numerous awards before graduating in 1915.  He then enrolled in Toulouse University, following a double academic program: literature and law. In 1921 he completed his Law thesis cum laude. His brother Pierre graduated in medical studies.
Sources: 
Rodolphe Alexandre, Gaston Monnerville et la Guyane (Paris: Ibis Rouge Editions, 1999); Jean-Paul Brunet, Gaston Monnerville, le Républicain qui défia de Gaulle (Paris: Albin Michel, 1997).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Emeritus Professor, University of Paris

Trice, Virgil Garnett, Jr. (1926-1997)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownershp: Public Domain

Virgil Garnett Trice, Jr., a respected chemical engineer and official with the U.S. Department of Energy, was one of only a small number of African Americans who held positions as nuclear scientists in the middle decades of the twentieth century. During a long career in public service, Trice specialized in both the development of nuclear energy and in the management of radioactive waste. He worked for a variety of agencies and also taught college courses part-time.

Born in Indianapolis, Indiana on February 3, 1926, Trice received a BS degree and an MS degree in chemical engineering from Purdue University. He completed an MS degree in industrial engineering in 1970 from the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago. In later years, while working in Washington, D.C., Trice served as Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Howard University.

Sources: 
Black Contributors to Science and Energy Technology (Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of Energy Office of Public Affairs, 1979); Vivian O. Sammons, Blacks in Science and Medicine (New York, NY: Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1990); “Atom Scientists: Ten negro Scientists at Argonne Lab Help in Race to Harness Atomic Materials for Peaceful Uses,” Ebony, September 1949, p. 26.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

555th Parachute Infantry Battalion [Triple Nickles], (1944–1947)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
The Triple Nickles Before a Jump, ca. 1945
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
On August 6, 1945, Private First Class Malvin L. Brown was killed after falling one hundred and forty feet during a “let-down” from a tree while fighting a forest fire in the Umpqua National Forest in southern Oregon. Brown was the first smokejumper to die while fighting a wildfire since the program’s inception by the U.S. Forest Service in 1939. He was also the only member of the “Triple Nickles” 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion to die in the line of duty during World War II.

The 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion was nicknamed “Triple Nickles” because of its numerical designation and because seventeen of its original twenty-member “colored test platoon” were from the 92nd Infantry (“Buffalo Soldiers”) Division of the U.S. Army. Their identifying symbol is three buffalo nickels joined in a triangle and the oddly-spelled “Nickle” is one of their trademarks.  
Sources: 
Triple Nickle website, http://www.triplenickle.com/home.htm; Bradley Biggs, Triple Nickles: America’s First All-black Paratroop Unit (Lancaster, United Kingdom: Gazelle Book Services, Ltd., 1986); Tanya Lee Stone, Courage Has No Color, The True Story of the Triple Nickles: America’s First Black Paratroopers (Somerville, Massachusetts: Candlewick Press, 2013); and Bob Zybach and Ken McCall 1994. Rex Wakefield, Douglas-Fir Forester: Western Oregon Forest History, 1911-1991 (Corvallis, Oregon: USDA Siuslaw National Forest and Oregon State University Research Forests, 1994).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Reed, Ishmael (1938 - )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public domain

Ishmael Reed is an African American poet, novelist, essayist, playwright, songwriter, cartoonist, editor, publisher, lecturer and public media commentator. Born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, on February 22, 1938, he grew up in Buffalo, New York, after his mother Thelma Coleman moved there during the Great Migration of World War II.  When his mother married Bennie Reed, Ishmael took his stepfather's last name.

Reed attended the University of Buffalo between 1956 and 1960, but did not receive a degree. In 1995, the university, now State University of New York at Buffalo, awarded him an honorary Doctorate in Letters and named him Distinguished Alumni of the Year 2014.

Sources: 

Ishmael Reed Website, http://www.ishmaelreed.org/; “KONCH Magazine,” http://ishmaelreedpub.com/; “Before Columbus Foundation,” http://www.beforecolumbusfoundation.com/;  “PEN Oakland,” https://www.penoakland.com/; “The Art of Poetry No. 100,” The Paris Review, #218, Fall 2016 (36-62).

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Williams, Paul R. (1894-1980)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Architect Paul Williams in Front of His Most Famous
Project, the Theme Building, Los Angeles Airport
Paul R. Williams was one of the most well known 20th Century African American architects. Early in his career, Williams designed mostly houses, but in the 1950s and 1960s he designed some of the most distinctive public buildings in Los Angeles. Williams’s best-known building is probably the Theme Building at Los Angeles International Airport, which he designed with William Pereira.

Paul Williams was born in Los Angeles in 1894, a few years after his parents had moved to Southern California from Tennessee. Williams’s father died in 1896, and his mother died two years later. Williams grew up in the home of C.D. and Emily Clarkson. He graduated from Polytechnic High School and studied at the Los Angeles School of Art, the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, and the engineering school at the University of Southern California. While he pursued his studies in the 1910s, Williams also worked in the offices of several different Los Angeles architects. In 1917 he married Della Mae Givens. They had two daughters, Marilyn and Norma.
Sources: 

Karen E. Hudson, Paul R. Williams, Architect: A Legacy of Style (New York: Rizzoli, 1993); “Architect Paul R. Williams,”    http://www.paulrwilliamsproject.org/about/paul-revere-williams-architect/


Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Western Washington University

African American Anti-Fascists in the Spanish Civil War

Eluard Luchell McDaniels, Spanish Civil
War Volunteer, Batea, Spain, May 1938
Image Courtesy of the Tamiment Library, New York University

Approximately 90 African Americans fought in Spain during the civil war that engulfed that nation between 1936 and 1939.  The war became a proxy war for the European great powers as the Soviet Union supported the newly established Second Spanish Republic while Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy supported the anti-Republic conservatives led by General Francisco Franco.  Although officially neutral, approximately 2,800 volunteers from the United States traveled to Spain as the Lincoln Brigade to support the Republic.  In the article below, historian Peter N. Carroll tells the story of one little-known African American volunteer, Canute Frankson who left an account of his reason for fighting in the Spanish Civil War.

Summary: 
<i>Approximately 90 African Americans fought in Spain during the civil war that engulfed that nation between 1936 and 1939.  The war became a proxy war for the European great powers as the Soviet Union supported the newly established Second Spanish Republic while Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy supported the anti-Republic conservatives led by General Francisco Franco.  Although officially neutral, approximately 2,800 volunteers from the United States traveled to Spain as the Lincoln Brigade to support the Republic.  In the article below, historian Peter N. Carroll tells the story of one little-known African American volunteer, Canute Frankson who left an account of his reason for fighting in the Spanish Civil War.</i>
Sources: 
Peter N. Carroll, The Odyssey of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade: Americans in the Spanish Civil War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994); Danny Duncan Collum, ed., African Americans in the Spanish Civil War: “This Ain’t Ethiopia, But It’ll Do (NY: G.K. Hall, 1992); Peter N. Carroll, From Guernica to Human Rights: Essays on the Spanish Civil War (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press); Peter N Carroll, et. al, eds., The Good Fight Continues: World War II Letters from the Abraham Lincoln Brigade (New York: NYU Press, 2006).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Watson, James Lopez (1922-2001)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
James Lopez Watson was the first African-American to serve as the head of a federal court in the Deep South. He was born in Harlem, New York City, New York, on May 21, 1922, to Violet and James S. Watson, a New York judge. James Lopez Watson’s first job was with his father during the senior Watson’s tenure as municipal judge.

During World War II, Watson served in Italy with the all-black 371st Infantry Regiment, and he was wounded in battle. He returned to the United States with a Purple Heart, a military honor given to those wounded or killed in the line of duty. After the war, he attended New York University, from which he graduated from in 1947. Watson graduated from the Brooklyn Law School in 1951, and then entered private law practice in New York City.
Sources: 
Wolfgang Saxon, “James Lopez Watson, 79, Judge on U.S. Trade Court,” New York Times (Sept. 6, 2001); Biographical Directory of Federal Judges https://www.fjc.gov/history/judges/watson-james-lopez.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Élizé, Raphaël (1891-1945)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Raphaël Élizé was an early 20th century French politician and the first black mayor of a metropolitan town in France: Sablé-sur-Sarthe (Sarthe). He was born in 1911 in Martinique into a racially mixed family: Augustin, his father, a tax collector and active Freemason, and his mother, Jeanne, had eight children.

In 1902, the family who lived in Saint-Pierre moved to Fort-de-France just before the Mount Pelée explosion.  As Saint-Pierre refugees they resettled in France.  Raphaël was 11 when he entered the French school system.  He attended the best high schools in Paris (Lycée Montaigne and Saint-Louis) where he completed his studies and then enrolled in veterinary school in Lyons, graduating in the summer of 1914 just before the beginning of World War I.

Twenty-three-year-old Élizé joined a colonial infantry regiment, first as private and then he was later assigned as the regiment’s veterinarian.  During the war he received the Croix de Guerre.
  
Sources: 
M. Agulhon, L. Girard, and J. Robert, Les maires en France du consulat à nos jours  (Paris : Publications de la Sorbonne, 1986); Simple Passé, Raphaël Élizé (1891-1945) Premier maire de couleur de la France métropolitaine. Des Antilles au Maine: Itinéraire entre politique et art de vivre (Paris : Éditions du Petit Pavé, 2010).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Emeritus Professor, University of Paris

Carter, George Sherman (1911-1998)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain

George Sherman Carter, research chemist, was born on May 10, 1911 in Gloucester County, Virginia. Carter, called Sherman, was one of four boys and one girl born to George Peter and Emily Maude Carter.  Not much is known of Carter’s childhood or of his move north but in 1936 Carter began his studies at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania where he majored in biology.  Carter was very active in the school community, joining Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, the track team, the New York Club and Wissenschaft Verein (Science Club).  After graduation in 1940 Carter attended Columbia University’s Teachers College as well as the College of the City of New York.

Carter married Kathleen Francis and the two of them had a daughter, Beverly Kathleen. In 1943 Carter was hired at Columbia University in New York to work in tandem with the University of Chicago studying nuclear fission. This project was set up by the Army Corps of Engineers as part of the famed Manhattan Project that produced the first atomic bomb.  While at Columbia, Carter worked for Isidor Isaac Rabi, who led the Columbia group of scientists.  That group included William and Lawrence Knox.

Sources: 
“George Sherman Carter, noted chemist and Harlem resident, dies at 87,” New York Amsterdam News (Dec. 9, 1998); George S. Schuyler, “Negro Scientists Played Important Role in Development of Atomic Bomb,” The Pittsburg Courier (Aug. 18, 1945); Lincoln University Alumni Magazine (Lincoln University, 1946); www.dailypress.com, Obituaries (Dec. 11-20, 1998)
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Evans, Harold Bethuel (1907-1995)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Harold Bethuel Evans, research chemist, was born on October 31, 1907 in Brazil, Indiana.  Evans attended Michigan State University for his undergraduate degree beginning in 1927; he majored in applied science and graduated in 1931. In 1932 he received his master’s degree in science from Michigan State, with his thesis on the Benzylation of Thymol, a chemical process. That same year he married and later had one child. After graduating, Evans sought a teaching position at an all-black college, as many educated blacks did at this time. He taught chemistry at Georgia State Normal College (now Georgia College) for the 1935-1936 school year.

Evans held a series of odd jobs between 1936 and 1941 when he moved to Illinois and was hired by the federal government’s Kankakee Ordnance Works (otherwise known as Illinois Ordnance Works).  He stayed there until 1943 working as a chemist on projects designed to support Great Britain until the U.S. officially entered World War II on December 8, 1941. From 1941 to 1943 he worked on U.S. military projects.
In 1943 Evans was hired as an associate chemist at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Lab, which after World War II evolved into the Argonne National Laboratory. It later relocated west of Chicago.  While with the Met Lab, Evans worked on nuclear fission projects as part of a 400-man team of scientists for the Manhattan Project, which produced the world's first atomic bombs.

Sources: 
Vivian Ovelton Sammons, Blacks in Science and Medicine (New York: Hemisphere Publishing corporation, 1990); American Men of Science (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1965); “Atom Scientists,” Ebony Magazine (Sept. 1949).

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Seattle Royal Giants (1928-1945)

Vignette Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Seattle Royal Giants, ca. 1933
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
The Seattle Royal Giants was a semi-professional baseball team that played through the Pacific Northwest in the first half of the 20th Century.  The Giants began in 1928 under the leadership of three former professional players in the Negro Baseball League, Elmer Wilson, Jimmy Claxton, and Powell S. Barnett. For three decades this team was the main attraction for Sunday afternoon baseball in African American Seattle.  As many as 3,500 white, black and Asian fans came to Garfield Park and 5,000 to Woodland Park to see the Giants play.

The 1929 team roster included second baseman Powell Burnett and pitcher Bob Saunders both of Roslyn, Washington. Saunders, who grew up in Rainier Valley, graduated from Broadway High School in Seattle in 1922.   Barnett, also a noted musician, was founder of the Northwest Baseball Umpires Association.  In 1949 the Seattle Parks Department named a park in his honor to recognize his accomplishments.
Sources: 
Lyle Kenai Wilson, Sunday Afternoons at Garfield Park, Seattle’s Black Baseball Teams 1911-1951 (Everett, Washington: Lowell Printing and Publishing, 1997); Powell S. Barnett Papers, University of Washington Special Collections, Seattle, Washington.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Gardner-Chavis, Ralph (1922- )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History

Image Ownership: Public Domain
Sources: 

James Michael Brodie, Created Equal: The Lives and Ideas of Black American Innovators (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1993); The HistoryMakers, http://www.thehistorymakers.com/biography/ralph-gardner-chavis-38.

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Watts Rebellion (August 1965)

Vignette Type: 
Events
History Type: 
African American History in the West
103rd Street, Watts Riot, 1966
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Following World War II, over 500,000 African Americans migrated to West Coast cities in hopes of escaping racism and discrimination. However they found both in the west. For many black Los Angeles, California residents who lived in Watts, their isolation in that community was evidence that racial equality remained a distant goal as they experienced housing, education, employment, and political discrimination. These racial injustices caused Watts’ African American population to explode on August 11, 1965 in what would become the Watts Rebellion.

Sources: 
Gerald Horne. Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995); Josh, Sides. L.A. City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003; Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots.  Violence in the City—an End or a Beginning? (Los Angeles: Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, 1965).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Young, Coleman A. (1918-1997)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain
Born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Coleman Young arrived in Detroit, Michigan with his family when he was five.  The Colemans settled in the working class neighborhood of Black Bottom (East Detroit), where his father operated a dry cleaning business and his mother was a schoolteacher.  Early in his life Coleman suffered various forms of racial discrimination from denial of scholarships to a racially motivated firing at an automobile plant.
Sources: 
Wilbur C. Rich, Coleman Young and Detroit Politics: From Social Activist to Power Broker (Detroit: Wayne State University, 1998); The Coleman Young Foundation, http://www.cayf.org/; A Life Remembered, http://drnissani.net/MNISSANI/elephant/young.htm.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Montgomery College (Maryland)

Huiswoud, Otto (1893-1961)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Otto Huiswoud and Claude McKay in Moscow, 1922
Image Ownership: Public domain

Otto Huiswoud was the first black member of the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA), as well as one of its founders. He was born in Paramaribo, Suriname (then the Dutch colony of Surinam), on October 23, 1893, to Rudolf Huiswoud, an ex-slave, and Jacqueline Bernard Huiswoud. In Surinam, Huiswoud worked as a printing apprentice until shipping out on a Dutch banana boat in 1910. In 1913 he jumped ship in Brooklyn, New York, to escape poor conditions on board and began working odd jobs in New York City to support himself.

In New York, Huiswoud was exposed to Socialism by speakers in Union Square, a park and political action hub in Manhattan. When working on a pleasure boat in the summer of 1918, he led a strike of black crew members and drew the attention of the Socialist Party leadership. They offered him a one-year scholarship to the socialist Rand School, which he accepted. As a result, he began a lifelong involvement in politics.

Sources: 
Jason M. Schultz, Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora (ABC-CLIO, 2008); Mark Solomon, The Cry Was Unity: Communists and African Americans, 1917-1936 (Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 1998).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Salvador, Henri (1917-2008)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
Henri Salvador with Ray Charles
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Henri Salvador was a popular 20th Century French entertainer, pop singer, and humorist.  His most popular and emblematic song was “Le lion est mort ce soir” or “Syracuse.” Salvador was born in Cayenne (French Guiana) on July 18, 1917 to parents from Guadeloupe.  His father, Clovis, was a civil servant and his mother, Antonine Paterne, was a Caribbean Indian.

In 1929 the family moved to France.  Henri quit school at 15 over the objections of his father and discovered circus life, becoming a street clown.  His aunt, Leona Gabriel, herself a professional singer, however, taught him to play music and introduced him to the violin, trumpet, drums, and guitar.
Sources: 
Henri Salvador, Attention ma vie (Paris: Éditions Jean-Claude Lattès, 1994); Olivier Miquel,  Henri Salvador: le rire du destin (Paris: Éd. du Moment, 2007); Serge Le Vaillant, Henri Salvador. L'élégance du funambule (Paris: Textuel, 2009).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Emeritus Professor, University of Paris

Robert Browning Flippin (1903–1963)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West

Robert Browning Flippin was an important community leader and racial activist in San Francisco beginning in the 1930s through the 1950s. He was also the first African American parole officer at the California State Prison at San Quentin. The son of the black physician George Albert Flippin, Robert attended Nebraska Central College and Washington State College prior to his arrival in San Francisco. In 1936 he also studied medical technology briefly at the Northwest Institute in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

In 1937 Flippin was appointed executive director of the Booker T. Washington Community Center in San Francisco, a recreation facility located in San Francisco’s Western Addition that catered to the city’s small African American population. Here, Flippin interacted with a broad array of San Francisco’s leaders and was regarded by the 1940s as one of the most respected African American leaders in the Bay Area.

Sources: 
Albert S. Broussard, African American Odyssey: The Stewarts, 1853-1963 (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 1998).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Texas A&M University

Mulzac, Hugh (1886-1971)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Sources: 
Robert A. Hill, Emory J. Tolbert, and Deborah Forczek, The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, Vol. III, Vol. IV (University of California Press 1984); http://www.marad.dot.gov/education_landing_page/k_12/k_12_salute/k12_hugh_mulzak/Hugh_Mulzac_detail_page.htm; http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/index.html; http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/harmon/mulzharm.htm
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Berea College

July, Johanna (1857?-1946?)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Johanna July, a black Seminole, was born around 1857 in Nacimiento de Los Negros, the settlement established in northern Mexico following the emigration of Indian and black Seminoles from the Indian Territory in 1849.  

By 1870, the U.S. Army, desperate for translators and scouts familiar with the border country, employed the black Seminoles leading to their return to the United States. Most of them, including the July family, settled in or near Eagle Pass, Texas in 1871.  There Johanna July learned to tame horses and herd the family’s goats and cattle. With the death of her father, she worked the stock and continued to tame wild horses for the U.S. Army and area ranchers.

Johanna developed her own method of taming horses. She would lead a horse into the Rio Grande, swim up, grab the mane, and gently ease astride. As the horse tired from swimming, he lost the strength to buck.
Sources: 
Jim Coffey, “Johanna July: A Horse-Breaking Women,” Black Cowboys of Texas, Sara R. Massey, ed. (College Station, Texas A&M University Press, 2000), 73-84.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

369th Infantry Regiment “Harlem Hellfighters”

Vignette Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain
First organized in 1916 as the 15th New York National Guard Infantry Regiment and manned by black enlisted soldiers with both black and white officers, the U.S. Army’s 369th Infantry Regiment, popularly known as the “Harlem Hellfighters,” was the best known African American unit of World War I.  Federalized in 1917, it prepared for service in Europe and arrived in Brest, France in December.  The next month, the regiment became part of the 93rd Division (Provisional) and continued its training, now under French instructors.  In March, the regiment finally received its Federal designation and was reorganized and reequipped according to the French model.  That summer, the 369th was integrated into the French 161st Division and began combat operations.
Sources: 
American Battle Monuments Commission, 93d Division: Summary of Operations in the World WarThe Employment of Negro Troops (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1966); Bernard C. Nalty, Strength for the Fight: A History of Black Americans in the Military (New York, New York: The Free Press, 1986); Emmett J. Scott, Scott’s Official History of the American Negro in the World War (Chicago, Illinois: R.L. Phillips Publishing Company, 1919). 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Clardy Craven, Erma (1918-1994)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public domain

Erma Clardy Craven was an African American leader in the pro-life movement. Craven helped start various “pro-life” organizations such as African-Americans Against Abortion, the National Right to Life Committee, Black Americans for Life, National Democrats for Life, and Americans United for Life. Craven was also a public speaker and was the second African American woman to address a Democratic National Convention.

Sources: 
“More than 20 years ago, she exposed abortion as Black genocide,” Executive Intelligence Review, http://www.larouchepub.com/eiw/public/1994/eirv21n32-19940812/eirv21n32-19940812_074-more_than_20_years_ago_she_expos.pdf;  Sandy Banisky, “Blacks split on issue of abortion Genocide to some is vital choice to others,” The Baltimore Sun, http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1992-06-15/news/1992167070_1_women-have-abortions-genocide-craven; Dave Andrusko, “Pro-Life Pioneers: Erma Clardy Craven,” National Right to Life News Today, http://www.nationalrighttolifenews.org/news/2017/02/black-pro-life-pioneers-erma-clardy-craven/.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Beaver, Fitzgerald Redd (Fitz) (1922–1991)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
"Image Ownership:Public Domain"
Fitzgerald Redd Beaver was a mid-and late 20th century media entrepreneur in the Pacific Northwest. He was the founder and publisher of The Facts, one of the two major black newspapers in Seattle, Washington since the 1960s. Building on a long tradition of African American journalism and newspaper ownership dating back to the 1890s in Seattle, he became through his newspaper an influential voice in the city and the region.
Sources: 
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Brown, Willa B. (1906-1992)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Willa Beatrice Brown, one of a small group of pre-World War II black women aviators, was born in Glasgow, Kentucky on January 22, 1906.  The daughter of Reverend and Mrs. Erice B. Brown, she graduated from Wiley High School in Terra Haute, Indiana.  In 1927, Brown earned a Bachelor’s degree from Indiana State Teachers College (now Indiana State University) and ten years later a Master’s degree in Business Administration from Northwestern University.  

After briefly teaching at Roosevelt High School in Gary, Indiana, she moved to Chicago, Illinois to become a social worker.  It was there, however, that she decided to learn how to fly.  In 1934 Brown began her flight instruction under the direction of John Robinson and Cornelius Coffey.  She also studied at the Curtiss Wright Aeronautical University and in 1935 earned a Masters Mechanic Certificate.  

Sources: 
Edmond Davis, Pioneering African-American Aviators featuring the Tuskegee Airmen of Arkansas (Little Rock: Aviate Through Knowledge Productions, LLC, 2012); George L. Washington, The History of Military and Civilian Pilot Training of Negroes at Tuskegee, Alabama, 1939-1945 (Washington, D.C., George L. Washington, Publisher, 1972);  Samuel L. Broadnax, Blue Skies, Black Wings: African American Pioneers of Aviation (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008);
http://avstop.com/history/blackwomenpilot/willabrown.htm.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Arkansas Baptist College, Little Rock

Seattle Steelheads (1946)

Vignette Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Poster for Seattle Steelheads at Borchert Field,
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, August 12, 1946
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
The Seattle Steelheads were the all-black minor league baseball team formed in the spring of 1946 as part of the West Coast Negro Baseball League organized by Abe Saperstein who became president of the league with Jesse Owens as vice-president. Other teams in the league included the Oakland Larks, the San Diego Tigers, the Los Angeles White Socks, the Portland Rosebuds (owned by Owens), and the San Francisco Sea Lions.  
Sources: 
Jay Berman, “The Forgotten League: West Coast Baseball Association,” Orange County Register, Santa Ana, California, Nov. 20, 2012; “Former Steelheads on Globe Trotters,” Seattle Daily Times, June 5, 1947; Jonathan Shipley, “The Seattle Steelheads: A Hard-Hitting Ball Club in the Short-Lived West Coast Negro League,” Columbia: The Magazine of Northwest History 25:1 (Spring 2011).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Seattle Central College

Fauset, Crystal Bird (1894–1965)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Crystal Bird Fauset with Eleanor Roosevelt
Image Ownership: Public Domain
Sources: 
Eric Ledell Smith, "Crystal Bird Fauset Raises Her Voice for Human Rights," Pennsylvania Heritage 13: 1 (Winter 1997)34-39; Nancy Joan Weiss, Farewell to the Party of Lincoln: Black Politics in the Age of FDR (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983); American Friends Service Committee website, afsc.org (Philip Clark); Explorepahistory.com (2009, WITF).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Sussex (England)

Black and Tan Club, The (1922-1966)

Vignette Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Black & Tan Club, Seattle, 1937
Image Courtesy of Puget Sound Regional Branch of the
Washington State Archives
The Black and Tan Club was a leading jazz nightclub located in Seattle, Washington, operating from 1922 until 1966.  The nightclub flourished and was known as the most famous nightclub in Seattle at the onset of World War II.  It derived its name from the black, white, and Asian patrons who attended the club during its four decades of operation.  
Sources: 
Paul de Barros, Jackson Street After Hours: The Roots of Jazz in Seattle (Seattle: Sasquatch Books, 1993): Clark Humphrey and Art Chantry, Loser: The Real Seattle Music Story (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999); http://pnwbands.com/blackandtan.html; http://www.raycharles.com/.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington

Belafonte, Harry (1927- )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History

 

Image Courtesy of ©Bettmann/CORBIS

Born March 1, 1927 as Harold George Bellanfanti Jr. in Harlem, New York, to parents Melvine Love Bellanfanti, a Jamaican housekeepter, and Harold George Bellanfanti, Sr., of Martinique, who worked as a chef for the National Guard. Belafonte grew from being a troubled youth to an award-winning entertainer and world-renowned political activist and humanitarian.  From 1932 to 1940, he lived with his grandmother in Jamaica.  He returned to New York City and attended George Washington High School. In 1944 Belafonte joined the Navy in order to fight in World War II, and although Belafonte was never sent overseas, after the war ended he was able to use the G.I. Bill to pay for a drama workshop at the New School for Social Research in Manhattan alongside fellow students Marlon Brando and Sidney Poitier

Sources: 
James Robert Parish and Michael R. Pitts, Hollywood Songsters:  Singers Who Act and Actors Who Sing (New York: Routledge, 2003).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Broyard, Anatole Paul (1920-1990)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public domain

New York Times literary critic, author, and teacher Anatole Broyard was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, on July 16, 1920, the son of carpenter Paul A. Broyard and Edna Miller, two light-skinned African Americans. With the nation in the throes of the Great Depression his family moved from the city’s historic French Quarter to a neighborhood in Brooklyn, New York. It was then that his father decided to pass for white in order to secure a job.

Sources: 
Henry Louis Gates Jr., “White Like Me,” The New Yorker (June 17, 1996); Herbert Mitgang, Broyard’s obituary in The New York Times (October 12, 1990); Farai Chideya, “Daughter Discovers Father’s Black Lineage” at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14896871.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Sabac el Cher, Gustav Albrecht (1868-1934)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Afro-German band conductor and restaurateur Gustav Albrecht Sabac el Cher, born March 10, 1868 in a palace in Berlin, was the son of August Sabac el Cher (1836?-1885), a Sudanese man who as an orphaned boy in Egypt was presented as a gift to Prussian Prince Friedrich Heinrich Albrecht and accompanied him back to Germany to serve the prince as valet, butler, and decorated soldier. Gustav’s mother, Anna Maria Jung, was the daughter of a prosperous textile merchant.  

Proficient with the violin since childhood, at age 17 Gustav entered military service as a musician and eventually received training at the Royal Academy of Music in Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin. During his tenure as Band Meister of the First Prussian Regiment of Grenadiers in Konigsberg he became somewhat of a celebrity known for his arrangement of military marches and Mozart overtures. Leaving the German Army in 1909, Gustav found freelance work directing orchestras in several cities and in the early 1920s was a pioneering radio orchestra conductor. He later owned a garden restaurant popular with tourists in Königs Wusterhausen in the state of Brandenburg.  

Sources: 
Gorch Pieken and Cornelia Kruse, Preussisches Liebesglu?ck: Eine Deutsche Familie aus Afrika (Berlin: List Taschenbuch Verlag, 2007; http://www.articlesbase.com/literature--articles/prussian-blind-love-445517.html; “Saba-el-Cher,” http://www.realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Art/Saba_el_Cher.htm.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
San Diego State University

Ruth, William Chester (1882-1971)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
William Chester Ruth, 1950
Image Courtesy of Anita Wills

William Chester Ruth was an African American inventor, business owner, and community leader in Chester County, Pennsylvania.  Ruth was the son of Samuel and Maria Louisa Pinn-Ruth.  The 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment liberated Samuel, a former slave, when it occupied Savannah, Georgia in 1865 while Maria Louisa was born free in Fredericksburg, Virginia.  The couple was married in 1872 in Chester County, Pennsylvania.  Ruth was one of twelve children, born on the family farm on July 19, 1882.

As a child, Ruth had an inquisitive nature, which led him to invent numerous pieces of farm equipment and machinery.  Although he was not well educated, he learned farming and blacksmithing from his father.  Ruth married Gertrude Miller on June 6, 1906, and they had one son, Joseph.  In 1917, the couple moved to Gap, Pennsylvania where six years later he opened Ruth’s Ironworks Shop, instantly becoming the only African American in the region to have his own manufacturing business.  Ruth designed and patented numerous agricultural devices from 1924 to 1950.   

Ruth’s first patented invention was the Combination Baler Feeder in 1924.  He sold over 5,000 Baler-Feeder machines across the U.S. Around the same time Ruth also invented the farm elevator used to transport hay to silos and in the American commercially harvested mushroom industry.  

Sources: 
“Ruth Claims Invention of Secret Weapon,” Ebony Magazine, October 1950; Joan M. Lorenz, A History of Salisbury Township (Morgantown, West Virginia: Masthof Press, 2002); Anita L. Wills, Pieces of the Quilt: The Mosaic of an African American Family (Charleston, South Carolina: BookSurge, 2004).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Edward A. Carter, Jr. (1916–1963)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Edward A. Carter, Jr. was a career noncommissioned officer for the United States Army and one of the only African American recipients of the Medal of Honor during World War II.

Carter was born May 26, 1916, in Los Angeles, California to missionary parents and was raised in Calcutta, India, and Shanghai, China. Fluent in Hindi, Mandarin, English, and German, Carter ran away from home and enlisted in the Chinese Nationalist Army at the age of fifteen to fight the Japanese after the Shanghai Incident of 1932. He rose to the rank of lieutenant before he was found to be underage and discharged.

Sources: 
Dan Elder, CSM, “Remarkable Sergeants: Ten Vignettes of Noteworthy NCOs,” The NCO Historical Society, November 8, 2008, http://www.ncohistory.com/files/RemarkableSgts.pdf; Wayne V. Hall, “Edward A. Carter II, Sergeant, United States Army,” Arlington National Cemetery, http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/eacerter.htm; Ernest McPherson, Ernest, “Medal of Honor: African-American Hero Recognized Decades after Brave Act,” United States Army February 24, 2009, http://www.army.mil/article/17391/.
Contributor: 

Pierce, Samuel R., Jr. (1922-2000)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
President Ronald Reagan with Samuel R. Pierce, Jr.
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Lawyer, judge and businessman Samuel Riley Pierce, Jr., was the first African American partner in a major New York law firm, the first African American member of a Fortune 500 board, and one of the first African Americans to argue a case before the U.S. Supreme Court.  His career ended when he was investigated for corruption while serving as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) under President Ronald Reagan.

Pierce was born in 1922 in Glen Cove, New York.  He received a football scholarship to Cornell University.  After serving in World War II, where he was the only black American agent in the U.S. Army’s Criminal Investigation Division of the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, he returned to Cornell and graduated with honors in 1947, then earned a J.D. from Cornell Law School and an LL.M. in taxation from New York University School of Law.

Sources: 
Jessie Carney Smith, Ed., Notable Black American Men, “Samuel R. Pierce, Jr.,” (Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Research, 1999); Samuel R. Pierce, Fiscal Conservatism: Managing Federal Spending (Washington, D.C.: Heritage Foundation, 1988); Philip Shenon, “Samuel R. Pierce, Jr., Ex-Housing Secretary, Dies at 78,” The New York Times (November 3, 2000; Robert L. Jackson, "Samuel R. Pierce Jr.; Reagan HUD Chief Was Investigated but Never Charged," Los Angeles Times (November 4, 2000).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Beaumont Race Riot, 1943

Vignette Type: 
Events
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Shipyard Warkers, Beaumont, Texas, ca. 1943
Image Ownership: Public Domain

The Beaumont Race Riot of 1943 was sparked by racial tensions that arose in this Texas shipbuilding center during World War II.  The sudden influx of African American workers in industrial jobs in the Beaumont shipyard and the subsequent job competition with white workers forced race relations to a boiling point.

The riot itself exploded on June 15, 1943 with most of the violence ending a day later.  White workers at the Pennsylvania Shipyard located in Beaumont, Texas confronted black workers after hearing that a local white woman had accused a black man of raping her.  The woman who made the accusation was later unable to identify her attacker from the number of black inmates held at the city jail.

Sources: 
James S. Olson, “Beaumont Riot of 1943,” The Handbook of Texas Online, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/BB/jcb1.html (accessed 11 June, 2008); Glen Yeadon and John Hawkins, The Nazi Hydra in America: Suppressed History of a Century (Joshua Tree: Progressive Press, 2007).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington

Miller, Doris [“Dorie”] (1919-1943)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Image Ownership, Public Domain
World War II war hero Doris “Dorie” Miller was born in Waco, Texas on October 12, 1919 to Conery and Henrietta Miller who were farmers just outside the city.  Miller grew to 6 feet 3 inches, weighed over 200 pounds, and played football at Waco’s A.J. Moore Academy.  He dropped out of school at the age of 17 and enlisted in the US Navy in 1939 at the age of 20.  He was made a mess attendant, one the few positions available to African Americans at the time.  Miller was eventually elevated to Cook, Third Class and assigned to the USS West Virginia stationed at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
Sources: 
Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Clark and Stanley Harrold, The African American Odyssey, Combined Volume  (New York: Prentice Hall, 2003); Matthew C. Whitaker, Peace Be Still: Modern Black America from World War II to Barack Obama (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2014).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Arizona State University

Goodwin, Luther Ambrose (1920-1982)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Luther and Joye Goodwin (Holding Their Child)
in 1964 Civil Rights Demonstration
Image Ownership: Public domain
Sources: 
Robert Fikes, Jr., “The Incomparable Mr. Goodwin” (unpublished paper); Luther Goodwin obituary in The San Bernardino County Sun (January 7, 1982); “Angela Davis Kin Jailed in Shooting,” San Diego Union (November 19, 1969).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Jacovacci, Leone (1902–1983)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Afro-Italian boxing champion Leone Jacovacci (a.k.a. John Douglas Walker and Jack Walker) was born in 1902 in the village of Pombo in the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of the Congo), the son of Umberto Jacovacci, a contracted Italian agronomist, and Zibu Mabeta, a local woman. His father took him to Italy to be raised by grandparents in Viterbo while he remained in Africa and had two more children with Zibu. Growing up with brown skin among Italian peasants was often challenging, and, as a restless sixteen-year-old, Leone Jacovacci, posing as an Indian from Calcutta, hopped aboard a British merchant ship docked in Naples to work as cabin boy.
Sources: 
Mauro Valeri, Nero di Roma: storia di Leone Jacovacci: l'invincibile mulatto italico. (Rome: Palombi, 2008); https://sportallarovescia.wordpress.com/2010/06/24/in-memoria-di-leone-jacovacci/; http://insorgenze.net/2009/07/04/leone-jacovacci-il-nero-che-prese-a-pugni-il-fascismo/.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
San Diego State University

Warfield, William (1920-2002)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain
Concert bass-baritone singer, actor, and teacher William Caesar Warfield was born on January 22, 1920 in West Helena, Arkansas to a family of sharecroppers. When Warfield was a young child, his family moved to Rochester, New York, where his father served as a pastor for Mt. Vernon Baptist Church in that city.

After graduating from high school, Warfield studied at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester and received a Bachelor of Music in 1942. After college, Warfield served overseas in the United States Army during World War II. In 1946, he returned to Rochester and to the Eastman School of Music for his graduate studies under Otto Herzm, Yves Tinayre, and Rosa Ponselle.
Sources: 
William Warfield and Alton Miller, William Warfield: My Music & My Life (Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing, 1991); http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Bio/Warfield-William.htm; http://chband.org/warfield.html.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Albina, Portland (1870- )

Vignette Type: 
Places
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Albina Neighborhood, 1962 (Oregon Historical Society)
"Image Ownership: Oregon Historical Society"
Albina is a neighborhood located in Northeast Portland, Oregon that for most of the 20th century was home to the majority of the city’s African American population. Before it was annexed into Portland in 1891, Albina was a rapidly growing city on the east side of the Willamette River from Portland. During the 1870s and 1880s, Albina’s population consisted mostly of new immigrants from Europe who worked at the Union Pacific Railroad terminal or on the docks. In the 1890s and 1900s, wealthy Portlanders from across the river began to purchase land in Albina. Most African American residents of Portland at the time rented homes or apartments on the west side of the river, closer to the city center.

By 1910, the black neighborhoods of northwest Portland were too crowded, and black Portlanders began to cross the river to look for homes, often choosing Lower Albina for its proximity to jobs at the docks or with the railroad. In response, the newer white neighborhoods of east Portland began adopting restrictive covenants, effectively confining African American home-seekers of east Portland to the Albina neighborhood.
Sources: 
Kimberley S. Moreland, History of Portland’s African American Community (1805 to the Present), City of Portland Bureau of Planning, 1993, https://multco.us/file/15283/download; Mark Friesen, “Graphic: Portland’s Central City Gets Whiter,” The Oregonian, April 30, 2011, http://www.oregonlive.com/pacific-northwest-news/index.ssf/2011/04/graphic_portlands_central_city_gets_whiter.html; Richard Ross, Ralph Ahselhn, and Malcolm Cross, Albina: Portland’s Ghetto of the Mind, KGW Broadcasting, 1967, http://legacy.kgw.com/story/features/2013/07/10/documentary-albina-portland-s-ghetto-of-the-mind-1967-/11775000/; Trudy Flores and Sarah Griffin, “The Albina Riot, 1967,” The Oregon Historical Society, 2002, http://oregonhistoryproject.org/articles/historical-records/albina-riot-1967/#.Vuh7AxIrKXQ; Tanya Hyatt Evenson, Sarah Griffith, and Amy E. Platt, “Albina Residents Picket Emmanuel Hospital,” Oregon Historical Society, 2002, http://oregonhistoryproject.org/articles/historical-records/albina-residents-picket-emanuel-hospital/#.VwFZ5Uc73d6; Karen J. Gibson, “Bleeding Albina: A History of Community Disinvestment, 1940-2000,” Transforming Anthropology, vol. 15, issue 1, 2007; Stuart McElderry, "Building a West Coast Ghetto: African-American Housing in Portland, 1910-1960," Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 92 (Summer 2001).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

National Council of Negro Women (1935- )

Vignette Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
African American History
Dorothy D. Height, Open Wide the Freedom Gates: A Memoir (New York: Public Affairs Press, 2003); Tracey A. Fitzgerald, The National Council of Negro Women and the Feminist Movement, 1935-1975 (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1985); Nina Mjagkij, Organizing Black America: An Encyclopedia of African American Associations (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 2001); http://ncnw.org/.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

93rd Infantry Division (1942-1946)

Vignette Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
African American History in the West
93rd Infantry Soldiers in Japanese Territory, Bougainville
Island, New Guinea, May 1, 1944. 
Image Courtesy of U.S. Army Archives

Activated on May 15, 1942, at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, the U.S. Ninety-third Infantry Division was the first segregated division-size infantry unit mobilized during the Second World War.  Composed of White general staff officers and African American junior officers and enlisted men, the Ninety-third was made up of the draftee 369th and the veteran 368th and the 25th Infantry Regiments along with an assortment of field battalions and companies. 

After its formation, the division conducted its basic training at Fort Huachuca, before heading to Louisiana during the spring of 1943 where the unit staged field operations against the Eighty-fifth Infantry Division during the Third Army Maneuvers.  In late 1943, the Ninety-third moved westward to California where the unit went through desert training exercises before departing from the United States for the South Pacific Theater of Operations in January, 1944.

Sources: 
Robert F. Jefferson, Fighting for Hope:  African American Troops of the 93rd Infantry Division in World War II and Postwar America (Baltimore:  The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Xavier University (Ohio)

Randolph, Asa Philip (1889-1979)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
A. Philip Randolph with Eleanor Roosevelt
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Asa Philip Randolph, born on April 15, 1889 in Crescent City, Florida, was one of the most respected leaders of the American Civil Rights movement in the twentieth century.  Randolph was a labor activist; editor of the political journal The Messenger, organizer of the 1941 March on Washington which resulted in the establishment of the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), and architect of the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

Sources: 
Andrew E. Kersten, A. Philip Randolph: A Life in the Vanguard (Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield, 2006); Cynthia Taylor, A. Philip Randolph: The Religious Journey of an African American Labor Leader (New York: NYU Press, 2006); Paula Pfeffer, A. Philip Randolph, Pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Tacoma

Powell, Barbara Rose Johns (1935-1991)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public domain

Barbara Rose Johns Powell was an American civil rights leader.  She is best known as the student who, at the age of sixteen, led a student strike at Robert Russa Moton High School (now Robert Russa Moton Museum) in Farmville, Prince Edward County, Virginia on April 21, 1951. The strike led the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to file a lawsuit, Davis v. Prince Edward County, which would become one of the five cases that led to the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision.

Sources: 
“Barbara Rose Johns Powell,” Biography, https://www.biography.com/people/barbara-johns-206527; “Barbara Rose Johns Powell,” All About Barbara Rose Johns, http://www.barbararosejohns.com/brief_bio.html; “Barbara Rose Johns Powell,” Public Broadcasting  Service, https://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_people_johns.html; “Barbara Rose Johns Powell,” Robert Russa  Moton Museum, http://www.motonmuseum.org/biography-barbara-rose-johns-powell/; “Barbara Rose Johns,” Digital SNCC Gateway, https://snccdigital.org/events/barbara-johns-leads-prince-edward-county-student-walkout/; Teri Kanefield, The Girl from the Tar Paper School: Barbara Rose Johns and the Advent of the Civil Rights Movement (New  York: Harry N. Adams, 2014).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Marincola, Giorgio (1923–1945)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Anti-fascist Afro-Italian partisan Giorgio Marincola lived a brief but heroic life. Born September 23, 1923, in the south central coastal town of Mahaday in what was then called Italian Somaliland, he was the son of Italian military officer Joseph Marincola and a Somali woman, Aschiro Hassan. His father, unlike most white colonizers who had children by native women, insured that his son and a younger daughter, Isabella, would be Italian citizens and packed them off the seaport town of Pizzo Calabro, Italy, to be raised by relatives.
Sources: 
“Storia Giorgio Marincola,” at http://www.razzapartigiana.it/?page_id=8; “Giorgio Marincola, First Somali Mulatto,” at  http://www.somalinet.com/forums/viewtopic.php?t=327444; Michele Robecchi, “Giorgio Marincola:Razza Partigiana di Dacia Valent,” at  http://digilander.libero.it/anpimuggio/ANPI/Storia/Voci/1945/5/4_Giorgio_Marincola.html.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
San Diego State University

Inkwell, Martha’s Vineyard (1890s– )

Vignette Type: 
Places
History Type: 
African American History
President Barack Obama & Daughter, Malia, Biking Near
Oak Bluffs, Martha’s Vineyard, 2010
Image Ownership: Public Domain
Oak Bluffs on Martha’s Vineyard, part of Massachusetts’ Cape Cod Islands, is one of several historic African American summer resort communities along the Atlantic seaboard founded in the 1890s. The” Inkwell” or Town Beach in Oak Bluffs is the name of the popular beach frequented by African Americans beginning in the late nineteenth century. The strand was pejoratively called “The Inkwell” by nearby whites in reference to the skin color of the beachgoers.  It is the most famous of beaches across the U.S. to transform this odious nickname into an emblem of pride.  
Sources: 
Jill Nelson, Finding Martha’s Vineyard, African Americans at Home on an Island (New York: Doubleday/Random House, 2005); Arthur Railton, “African Americans on Martha’s Vineyard,” The Dukes County Intelligencer, Special Edition (October 1997): iii-69.
Affiliation: 
University of California, Santa Barbara

Gipson, Carl (1924– )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Carl Gipson was the first African-American city council member in the city of Everett, Washington, serving from 1971 until 1995. Born in Lincoln County, Arkansas, on January 11, 1924, Gipson grew up as the grandson of former slave, Doc Gipson, who had accumulated a substantial amount of land to grow cotton, corn, and other crops. In his upbringing, Carl Gipson encountered the many disadvantages of the Jim Crow South on a daily basis. His family was also struck by natural disasters. In 1927, for example, Lincoln County became flooded, and only a few years later, it suffered a year-long drought from 1930 to 1931. In this troubling time, Gipson’s family became impoverished. Because local African American children had only a slight chance to receive an education, Gipson moved to Little Rock, Arkansas, to attend Dunbar High School. There he met Jodie Mae Waugh, whom he would eventually marry in 1942 after graduation. The two moved to Richmond, California, in 1943 where he worked as a welder in a shipyard.
Sources: 
Noah Hagland, “Award-winning artist paints mural to honor Carl Gipson,” The Everett Herald, June 11, 2014) http://www.heraldnet.com/article/20140611/NEWS01/140619883; Eric Stevic, “Community helps Carl Gipson celebrate his 90th,” The Everett Herald, January 17, 2014, http://www.heraldnet.com/article/20140117/COMM01/140119342; John Caldbick, “Gipson, Carl (b. 1924,” HistoryLink, http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?displaypage=output.cfm&file_id=10696.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Pruitt-Igoe Housing Project, St. Louis, Missouri (1956–1976)

Vignette Type: 
Events
History Type: 
African American History

Demolition of Pruitt-Igoe Housing Project

Image Ownership: Public Domain

Sources: 
John F. Bauman, Roger Biles, & Kristin M. Szylvian, From Tenements to the Taylor Homes, (University Park, Pa: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000); Lee Rainwater, Behind Ghetto Walls: Black Families in a Federal Slum (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1970); Colin Gordon, Mapping Decline: St. Louis and the Fate of the American City, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008); Kathrine G. Bristol, "The Pruitt-Igoe Myth", Journal of Architectural Education, 44;3 (Spring 1991);Clarence Lang, "Between Civil Rights and Black Power in the Gateway City:
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Graves, Letitia A. (1863-1952)

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Ellison, Ralph (1913-1994)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain
Born on March 1, 1913 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Ralph Waldo Ellison entered the world with a name that almost presumed for him a literary career. But his road to and in literature would be torturous. Many of the initial comforts enjoyed by Ellison vanished when his father died in 1916. His mother worked long and hard to insure that Ralph Ellison had an education, but the family existed in precarious economic circumstances. When an opportunity arose for Ralph to escape from home, he jumped at it, enrolling in 1933 as a music student at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. While Ellison learned much about music at the school, he also spent an immense amount of time and energy devouring modern literature at the school library.
Sources: 
Arnold Rampersad, Ralph Ellison: A Biography (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007); George Cotkin, Existential America (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003); Kenneth W. Warren, So Black and So Blue: Ralph Ellison and the Occasion of Criticism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003); Jerry Gafio Watts, Heroism and the Black Intellectual: Ralph Ellison, Politics, and Afro-American Intellectual Life (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Cal Poly

Woodson, Waverly Bernard, Jr. (1922-2005)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public domain

World War II hero Waverly B. “Woody” Woodson was born August 3, 1922 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of Waverly B. Watson Sr., a postal carrier. The historical record reveals nothing about his mother. A pre-med student at Lincoln University when World War II started, Waverly left during his sophomore year to enlist in the U.S. Army on December 15, 1942.

Despite completing Officer Candidate School in Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA), he was informed there were no positions for blacks as officers in AAA. He was instead steered into medic training and was assigned to the racially segregated 320th Barrage Balloon Battalion, a black unit that specialized in strategically positioning balloons in battle areas to destroy enemy aircraft.

Sources: 
Linda Hervieux, Forgotten: The Untold Story of D-Day’s Black Heroes, at Home and at War (Harper Collins, 2015); “Woodson, Waverly – Enclosed Docs sent to Army” at http://stateside.digitalnewsroom.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Woodson-Waverly-Enclosed-Docs-Sent-to-Army-11.5.15.-No-PR.pdf; John Chambers, “Lincoln University Honors a World War II Hero” at http://www.chestercounty.com/2015/03/13/64967/lincoln-university-honors-a-world-war-ii-hero.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Ruben Um Nyobè (1913–1958)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Ruben Um Nyobè is a little known but major figure in the African independence campaign.  He was the first African political leader to claim independence for his country before the General Assembly of the United Nations. He is called the “black Hô Chi Minh” by some authors and “Mpodol” (spokesman) for his country, Cameroon.

Um Nyobè was born at Song Mpeck in the Cameroon on April 10, 1913, when it was still a colonial possession of Germany. His first education came in Presbyterian Church primary schools, and he was baptized in 1921 as a Presbyterian. While he was in school, colonial administration of Cameroon was transferred from recently-defeated Germany to France and Great Britain at the end of World War I. Eventually, Nyobè and other Cameroonian nationalists sought to reunite the now divided territory.
Sources: 
J.A. Mbembe, La naissance du maquis dans le sud du Cameroun (The birth of the Maquis in the Southern Cameroon) (Paris: Karthala, 1996); R. Um Nyobè, Le problem national Kamerunais (The Kamerunian national problem), Edited by J.A. Mbembe (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1984); http://www.bonaberi.com/article.php?aid=1544.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Rhodes University, South Africa

Woodard, Isaac (1919-1992)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Isaac Woodard, Jr. Escorted by Joe Louis
and Unidentified Man, 1946
Image Ownership: Public Domain
In 1946, U.S. Army Sergeant Isaac Woodard challenged a Greyhound Bus driver while traveling from Georgia to North Carolina after being discharged from service in World War II.  Police officers who met him at the next stop brutally attacked him and left him permanently blinded. The attack on Woodard and similar stories of mistreatment of other black servicemen returning from the war let to new national pressures on racial segregation and discrimination and to the integration of the Armed Services in 1948.
Sources: 
“The Isaac Woodard Case,” The Crisis 53 (September 1946);  Lynda G. Dodd, “Presidential Leadership and Civil Rights Lawyering in the Era Before Brown,” Indiana Law Journal 85 (Fall 2010): John Egerton, Speak Now Against the Day: The Generation Before the Civil Rights Movement in the South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994);  Andrew H. Myers, “Resonant Ripples in a Global Pond:  The Blinding of Isaac Woodard,” available at:  http://faculty.uscupstate.edu/amyers/conference.html.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Georgia Southwestern State University

Caldwell, Elvin R., Sr. (1919-2004)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Image Ownership: Public domain

Politician Elvin R. Caldwell Sr. was born on April 11, 1919 in Denver, Colorado. Raised in Five Points, Denver’s predominantly black community, Caldwell was one of 12 children in his family. After graduating from Eastside High School in 1937, Caldwell earned a track scholarship to the University of Colorado and then transferred to the University of Denver, graduating in 1941.

During World War II Caldwell worked as a Chief Statistician for the Remington Arms Company.  This munitions manufacturer had 19,500 employees and produced 6.5 million rounds a day during the height of the conflict. After the end of the war, many Denver blacks who had been employed in the war economy were displaced and faced issues of racial discrimination from the larger community.  This discriminatory environment led Caldwell into local politics.

Sources: 
Diana DeGette, “Tribute to Elvin R. Caldwell, Sr.,” 150 Cong. Record, E768 (May 6, 2004).; Monica Pirolo, "Elvin R. Caldwell," Colorado Encyclopedia, https://coloradoencyclopedia.org/article/elvin-r-caldwell; “Legislator Record,” http://www.leg.state.co.us/lcs/leghist.nsf/5e6acf1f4ca35ab9872573830079a7bf/e34c422128aa66b3872578e2005d53ff.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Cabrini Green Housing Project, Chicago (1942 -2009)

Vignette Type: 
Places
History Type: 
African American History

 

Image Ownership: Public Domain

The Cabrini-Green Housing Project was a Chicago (Illinois) Housing Authority (CHA) managed housing project located on the city’s Near North Side neighborhood.  The project was authorized by the Housing Act of 1937 which called for the construction of public housing as part of the effort to eliminate slums in major U.S. cities.  The Frances Cabrini Homes, completed in 1942, was the first major public housing project in Chicago and the first section of what would eventually be called the Cabrini-Green Project.   Its 586 units provided residence for soldiers temporarily stationed in Chicago during World War II and replacement housing for those who had formerly lived in the “Little Hell” neighborhood, the community demolished to allow construction of this project.   

Sources: 
D. Bradford Hunt, Blueprints for Disaster: The Unraveling of Chicago Public Housing (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2009); Brian J. Miller, “The Struggle Over Redevelopment at Cabrini Green, 1989-2004,” Journal of Urban History, 34:6 (Fall 2008); Arnold R. Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983)
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Washington, Janie Rogella (1908-2000)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Image courtesy of the James W. Washington,
Jr. & Mrs. Janie Rogella Washington Foundation
Janie Rogella Washington was the wife of James W. Washington, Jr. (1911-2000), an internationally known Northwest artist.  A  Seattle nurse, she shared and inspired the spirituality that shaped his art.  One of 12 children, Janie Rogella Miller was born near Henderson, Texas to Freeman Miller and Daisy Cameron Miller and educated in the state's segregated schools, graduating from Emmett Scott High School in Tyler, Texas in 1926.  She studied nursing for several years at Butler College in that city and then in 1943, after a move to Little Rock, Arkansas, she met and married James W. Washington, Jr., a civilian electrician with the Navy.  
Sources: 
HistoryLink.org Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History, “Janie Rogella Washington (1908-2000),” by Mary T. Henry, http://www.historylink.org.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Tuskegee Airmen

Vignette Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
African American History
Tuskegee Airmen at Army Air Base, Ramitelli,
Italy, March, 1945 (U.S. Army Archives)

Over the past seven decades the exploits of the Tuskegee Airmen have been celebrated, occasionally mythologized, and used as a recent reminder of the patriotism and heroism of African Americans in times of national crisis.  Mounting pressure by black leaders such as union activist A Philip Randolph, NAACP chief executive Walter F. White, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and the black press to increase their presence in all branches of military service eventually persuaded a reluctant War Department to allow for the training of blacks as fighter pilots (initially no training for bomber crews) at an isolated field at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, thus preempting contact with white trainees. 

Sources: 
Von Hardesty, Black Wings: Courageous Stories of African Americans in Aviation and Space History (New York: HarperCollins, 2008);Lawrence P. Scott, Double V: The Civil Rights Struggle of the Tuskegee Airmen (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1994); Charles W. Dryden, A-Train: Memoirs of a Tuskegee Airman (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 1997); http://tuskegeeairmen.org/pages/2/index.htm
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
San Diego State University

Holmes, Dorothy Evans (1943- )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public domain

Dorothy Evans Holmes is a psychoanalytic thinker who broke through racial, gender, and other institutional boundaries of such organizations as the American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA). She is in the vanguard of discourse on gender and race, including culturally-imposed trauma. She is fluent in discussions on the ineffectiveness of psychoanalysis in dealing with the results of culturally-imposed trauma on intrapsychic and interpersonal lives. Her scholarly writing includes “success neurosis,” a condition in which clients, especially women, fear success to the point of sabotaging their professional lives.

Holmes was born in 1943 and grew up in Chicago, Illinois during the 1940s. Despite the death of an uncle during World War II and her parents’ divorce, Dorothy’s home setting encouraged her and twin sister Doris to pursue higher education.

Sources: 
Unitarian Universalist Association, https://www.uua.org/offices/people/dorothy-evans-holmes-phd; Linda Hillman and Therese Rosenblatt, editors, The Voice of the Analyst: Narratives on Developing a Psychoanalytic Identity (London: Routledge, 2018).
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

The Second Italo-Abyssinian War (1935–1936)

Entry Type: 
Events
History Type: 
Global African History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
The Second Italo-Abyssinian War was Italy’s conquest of Ethiopia, a process it began after the 1885 Partition of Africa. Italy was defeated in its first attempt at conquest at the battle of Adwa in 1896, allowing Ethiopia to become the only African nation to remain free of European control. Italian colonial forces however still remained in neighboring Eritrea and Somalia, and it was only a matter of time before the two nations would clash again.

The prospect of war increased dramatically after the fascist dictator, Benito Mussolini, took control of Italy in 1922. He sought Ethiopia for its resources but also to salvage the pride of the only European nation defeated by an African country. Taking Ethiopia would have also completed the Italian domination over the Horn of Africa.

Sources: 
Michael C. Anderson, “Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935-1936,” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2015; George W. Baer, “Test Case: Italy, Ethiopia, and the League of Nations,” Hoover Institute Press, Stanford University, 1976; Anthony Mockler, Haile Selassie’s War: The Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935-1941 (New York: Random House, 1984).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Bunche, Ralph J. (ca. 1903-1971)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History

Ralph Johnson Bunche, American political scientist, renowned scholar, award winner, and diplomat, was one of the most prominent African Americans of his era.  Bunche was born on August 7, 1903 or 1904 (there is some disagreement about the year of his birth) in Detroit, Michigan. His father Fred was a barber who owned a racially segregated barbershop that catered solely to white customers. His mother, whose maiden name was Olive Agnes Johnson, was an amateur musician.

Young Ralph spent his early years in Michigan. However, due to the relatively poor physical constitution of his mother and grandmother’s uncle, Charlie Johnson, the family settled in Albuquerque, New Mexico when he was ten years old. The family believed the dry climate of the region would be more conducive to his parents’ health. Yet both his mother and uncle died when Ralph turned twelve. His mother died of tuberculosis in 1917. His uncle committed suicide the same year. The circumstances surrounding his father are less fully known. The common narrative is that he left the family, remarried, and never returned.

Sources: 
Benjamin Rivlin, Ralph Bunche: The Man and His Times (New York: Holmes & Meyer, 1990); Brian Urquhart, Ralph Bunche: An American Life (New York: W.W. Norton, 1993).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
East Tennessee State University

Frenchtown, Houston, Texas (1922- )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Residents of Frenchtown
Image Ownership: Public domain

Frenchtown, a community built in 1922 in Houston, Texas, was constructed by hundreds of Creole descendants of free French, Spanish, and African people living in southwestern Louisiana in the eighteenth century. Coming to Houston for economic opportunities, they settled and created this community because of the racial segregation existing at this time that limited them to certain parts of the city.

Houston experienced three major waves of Creole immigration. The first wave occurred at the beginning of the 1920s: Houston was economically booming and attracted a lot of workers. Among them were descendants of a mostly free, mixed-race French, Spanish, or African people living in the southern section of French colonial Louisiana. This first wave included skilled and semi-skilled workers; carpenters, bricklayers, mechanics, and sawmill workers.  They were mainly employed by the Southern Pacific Railroad, but they were also present in the oil industry or as longshoremen on the Houston Ship Channel.

Sources: 
Diana J. Kleiner, rev. by Ron Bass, “Frenchtown, Houston,” Handbook of Texas Online, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/hrfvg  Lawrence Jeffrey, “Frenchtown,” Exile, Vol. 36, No. 2, (2012) Richard Mizelle, Where Sixteen Railroads Meet the Sea: Migration and the Making of Houston’s Frenchtown, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Sciences Po Paris

Bullard, Eugene James ["Jacques"] (1895-1961)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Courtesy of
National Museum of the U.S. Air Force
Eugene James (Jacques) Bullard, the first African American combat aviator, was known as the “black swallow of death” for his courage during missions. He led a colorful life, much of it in Europe.

Bullard was born in Columbus, Georgia, on October 9, 1895, the seventh child of Josephine Thomas and William O. Bullard. Eugene received a minimal education but learned to read, a key to his later successes. After witnessing the near-lynching of his own father and other racial violence, Bullard ran away from home in 1906. In Atlanta, he joined a group of gypsies and traveled with them, tending and learning to race their horses.

In 1912 as a teen, Bullard stowed away on German merchant ship bound for Aberdeen, Scotland. For the next two years, he performed in a vaudeville troupe and supported himself as a prizefighter in Great Britain and elsewhere in Europe. He first appeared in Paris, his long-time destination, at a boxing match in November 1913.
Sources: 
Craig Lloyd. “Eugene Bullard (1895-1961).” New Georgia Encyclopedia. 01 October 2014. Web. 30. August 2015. Craig Lloyd, Eugene Bullard: Black Expatriate in Jazz-age Paris (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2000); P.J. Carisella, James W. Ryan, and Edward W. Brooke, The Black Swallow of Death: The Incredible Story of Eugene Jacques Bullard, The World's First Black Combat Aviator (Boston: Marlborough House, 1972); William A. Shack, Harlem in Montmartre: A Paris Jazz Story Between the Great Wars (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001); “Eugene Bullard," Contemporary Black Biography. Vol. 12 (Detroit: Gale, 1999).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Port Chicago Mutiny (1944)

Vignette Type: 
Events
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Aftermath of Port Chicago Explosion
Image Ownership: Public Domain
The Port Chicago Mutiny involved African American enlisted men in the U.S. Navy who refused to return to loading ammunition after a disastrous explosion at Port Chicago, California on July 17, 1944, that destroyed the Liberty ship SS E.A. Bryan. Sailors and dock workers were pressured by time and their superiors and were also using unsafe unloading methods.  These methods, all common practice on munitions docks at the time despite their danger, led to a munitions ship explosion that killed all the Navy men on the E.A. Bryan and many Navy dock workers on shore.  All told, 320 sailors, 202 of whom were African Americans, were instantly incinerated in the explosion.  The blast wave was so powerful it could be felt as far away as Boulder City, Nevada, 430 miles to the south and caused damage 48 miles away in San Francisco.  The force of the explosion launched massive chunks of debris, some of which fell almost two miles from ground-zero.  The falling debris injured another 390 people. The Port Chicago explosion was by far the worst disaster on home soil during World War II.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Till, Emmett Louis (1941-1955)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain
Emmett Till was a fourteen-year-old African American boy who was tortured and killed in Money, Mississippi in 1955 after allegedly insulting a white woman.  Born in Chicago, Illinois, Till lived with his mother, Mamie Till. His father, Louis Till, died while serving in the U.S. Army in Italy in 1945. In the summer of 1955, Till went to visit with his 64-year-old great-uncle Mose Wright and family. Before leaving home, Till’s mother instructed him to follow Southern customs and mind his manners, but having grown up in a Northern city like Chicago, Till was unaware of the legacy of lynching and the rigid social caste system in the South. 
Sources: 

“The Murder of Emmett Till,” The American Experience, pbs.org; Ruth Feldstein, “I Wanted the Whole World to See’: Race, Gender, and Constructions of Motherhood in the Death of Emmett Till” in Not June Cleaver: Women and Gender in Postwar America, 1945-1960, Joanne Jay Meyerowitz, ed., (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994); Mamie Till Bradley, “Speech given at Bethel A.M.E. Church, Baltimore, Maryland, Oct. 29, 1955,” in Women and the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965, eds., Davis W. Houck and David E. Dixon, (Oxford: University Press of Mississippi, 2009).

Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Bromery, Randolph Wilson (1926-2013)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public domain

ENTRY SPONSOR: Catherine Foster

Geologist and college administrator Randolph W. Bromery was born in Cumberland, Maryland, on January 18, 1926, the son of Lawrence Randolph Bromery and Edith Edmonson Bromery. Graduating at the top of his high school class in 1942, he briefly worked as a machinist in Detroit, Michigan, before entering the United States Army Air Corps to train to be a pilot.

Sources: 
Alexander E. Gates, “Bromery, Randolph W. (Bill),” in A to Z of Earth Scientists (New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009); “Randolph Bromery: National Visionary,” http://www.visionaryproject.org/bromeryrandolph/; Legacy.com obituary,   http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/gazettenet/obituary.aspx?pid=163350315.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Ethiopian-Somali War Over the Ogaden Region (1977–1978)

Entry Type: 
Events
History Type: 
Global African History
Somali Tanks Entering Ethiopia at the Start of the
Ethiopian-Somali War, 1977-1978
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
In 1977 Ethiopia and Somalia engaged in a brief territory conflict over the Ogaden region situated between and claimed by both nations. This conflict however held significance greater than most territorial disputes because Ethiopia was backed by the Soviet Union and Somalia was supported by the United States, thus bringing the Cold War to eastern Africa.

Long before the 1977 conflict, the Ogaden had been subject to dispute. Following World War II, when Ethiopia had been aligned with the Allies against the Axis Powers, Great Britain relinquished its claim on the Haud and Ogaden regions as part of British-Somaliland. When British Somaliland became part of the newly independent nation of Somalia in 1960, that government took control over the region. They intensified their control when a military coup led to the assassination of Somali President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, and the army’s seizure of control of the nation in 1969.
Sources: 

Martin Plaut, "Ethiopia–Somalia: A History of Conflict," Martinplaut, January 2013; Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, eds. Africana: The encyclopedia of the African and African American experience. Oxford University Press, 2005 https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Anthony+Appiah+and+Henry+Louis+Gates%2C+eds.+Africana%3A%20+The+encyclopedia+of+the+African+and+African+American+experience.+Oxford+University+Press%2C+2005&btnG=&hl=%20en&as_sdt=0%2C48; Kenneth G. Weiss, The Soviet Involvement in the Ogaden War. No. CNA-PP-269, Center for Naval Analyses, Institute of Naval Studies, Alexandria, Virginia, 1980 https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Kenneth+G.+Weiss%2C+The+%20Soviet+Involvement+in+the+Ogaden+War.+No.+CNAPP-269%2C+Center+for+Naval+Analyses%2C+Institute+of+Naval%20+Studies%2C+Alexandria%2C+Virginia%2C+1980.&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C48.

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Wright, Nathan Jr. (1923-2005)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Black Power advocate Nathan Wright, Jr. was born on August 5, 1923 in Shreveport, Louisiana. He and his brother and sisters grew up in Cincinnati, Ohio. Wright attended St. Augustine’s College in Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1941 and 1942 and then transferred to Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1943 and 1944. He served in the U.S. Army Medical Administrative Corps during World War II.
Sources: 
“Negro Spokesman. Nathan Wright Jr.,” New York Times, July 22, 1967;
Chuck Stone, “The National Conference on Black Power,” in The Black Power Revolt: A Collection of Essays, ed. Floyd B. Barbour (Boston: Porter Sergeant, 1968); Jon Thurber, “Nathan Wright Jr., 81: Minister Was Figure in 1960s Black Power Debate,” Los Angeles Times, March 4, 2005; Margaret Alic, “Gale Contemporary Black Biography: Nathan Wright, Jr.,” Contemporary Authors Online, October 26, 2005.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
California State University, Los Angeles

Morning Star Baptist Missionary Church, Pasco, WA (1946- )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Image Ownership: Public domain

Morning Star Baptist Missionary Church opened in 1946 on 631 South Douglas Avenue in Pasco, Washington, where it stands to this day. The church was founded to provide for the spiritual needs of the thousands of black workers who came to Hanford Atomic Facility during and after World War II.  The founder and first pastor of the church was Reverend Johnnie Steward. The church’s values have always greatly focused on bettering family and community relationships. Reverend Steward’s daughter and her children attended every event at the church in support of their father/ grandfather and their common bond of the love for the Lord.

In 1946 the church was exclusively for the African American citizens of Pasco, Washington. Today, not much has changed because the church is still predominantly black, but it is now open to accepting people of others races and cultures. The Baptist church and community thrives to be a welcoming and all-inclusive place where all can find love and rejoice for the Lord.

Sources: 
Re’Gena Bell-Roberts, Walking on Thin Ice (New York: iUniverse, 2015); “Willie Roquemore,” https://www.sunsetgardenstricities.com/obituaries/2014/february/willie-lee-roquemore/; “Morning Star Mission Baptist Church Website,” https://www.facebook.com/Morning-Star-Missionary-Baptist-Church-113443452022989/; “Rev. KC Upton,” http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/tricityherald/obituary.aspx?pid=15374690.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Gibbs, Jr., George W. (1916-2000)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
George Gibbs, Jr. in the Antarctic, 1941
Image Courtesy of Leilani Henry (Gibbs)

George W. Gibbs, Jr. was the first person of African descent to set foot on Antarctica (the South Pole).  He was also a civil rights leader and World War II Navy gunner.

Gibbs was born in Jacksonville, Florida on November 7, 1916. He moved to Brooklyn, New York where he enrolled in Brooklyn Technical School and later received his GED. He also served in the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s.

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Jackson, James Lloyd (1920-2008)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Image Ownership:
Public Domain
James Lloyd Jackson was one of the little known heroes of the D-Day Landing at Normandy Beach in France in 1944.  Jackson was born in Lakeland, Florida on February 25, 1920 to Essie May Holly and Amos Jackson. He graduated from Lakeland High School in 1938. For the next five years he worked for the Lakeland Fertilizer Company.

Jackson joined the U.S. Army in 1943 as a private.  In 1944, just a year after joining the military, Sergeant James Jackson led a unit of the 531st Combat Engineers onto Normandy Beach at dawn in preparation for the much larger invasion that was to follow. Jackson's unit also captured German soldiers including Max Schmeling, the boxer who fought Joe Louis in 1937 and 1938. Jackson's unit continued to work in battlefield settings for the rest of World War II.  

James Jackson decided in 1945 to make the Army a career. In 1951 he was promoted to second lieutenant while serving in Korea.  On December 27, 1953 Jackson married Octavia Mills, a former elementary school teacher from Oklahoma. The couple had five children.  

At the end of the Korean War Jackson used his years in the military to further his education.  While in the Army and stationed at various posts, Jackson studied at the University of Maryland, the University of Puget Sound, the University of Heidelberg in Germany, and finally Western Washington University where he received a Bachelor of Science in 1975.  
Sources: 
National Archives and Records Administration, Jackson Family Records.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Weaver, Robert Clifton (1907-1997)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History

 

Robert C. Weaver Standing Next to
President Lyndon B. Johnson as he is Introduced as the
First African American Nominee for a Cabinet Post
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"

Robert C. Weaver was a noted economist and administrator. From 1966 through 1968, he was the first African American cabinet official, serving as the Secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Weaver was born and raised in Washington D.C. From 1929 through 1934, he attended Harvard University, earning economic degrees at the Bachelor of Science, Masters’, and Ph.D. levels. As an administrator, Weaver worked as an adviser to the Secretary of the Interior (1933-37), special assistant for the Housing Authority (1937-40), and an administrative assistant with the National Defense Advisory Commission (1940). During the Second World War, he worked in several capacities concerned with mobilizing black labor into industrial employment contracted by the federal government.

Sources: 
The Columbia Encyclopedia (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005); http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Robert_Clifton_Weaver.aspx.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Syracuse University

Cleveland’s Hough Riots of 1966

Vignette Type: 
Events
History Type: 
African American History
Front Page of the Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 23, 1966
Image Ownership: Public domain

Cleveland’s Hough Riots of 1966 was the first major racial uprising of the decade in an Ohio city but preceded by two years the much more extensive uprising there in the aftermath of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in April 1968.  It was, however, a continuation of a series of national confrontations that began sweeping across the nation in 1964 and to that date, the longest riot in the 1960s.

Between 1950 and 1965 the Hough neighborhood in eastern Cleveland, which had been predominantly white and middle class, transitioned into an overwhelmingly black area. This rapid transition, which negatively impacted property values and dramatically increased the neighborhood’s population, came when the entire city experienced post-World War II economic decline. Those reasons combined to generate growing racial tensions in that area and across the city.

Sources: 
Brian Albrecht, “Hough riot, 50 years ago, couldn't destroy a neighborhood,” Cleveland.com (2016), http://www.cleveland.com/metro/index.ssf/2016/07/hough_riot_50_years_ago_couldn.html; Olivia Lapeyrolerie, "’No Water for Niggers’: The Hough Riots and the Historiography of the Civil Rights Movement" (2015), Cleveland Memory 28; http://engagedscholarship.csuohio.edu/clevmembks/28/; Ohio History Central, “Cleveland Civil Disorders (1966-1968),” Ohio History Connection, http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Cleveland_Civil_Disorders_(1966_-_1968); The [Cleveland] News-Herald, “PHOTOS: 1966 Hough riots in Cleveland,” July 19, 2017, http://media.news-herald.com/2017/07/19/photos-1966-hough-riots-on-cleveland/#15.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Syracuse University

Roumain, Jean Baptiste (Jacques) / Roumain, Jacques (1907-1944)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
Image Ownership: Public domain

Jacques Roumain (Born Jean-Baptiste Roumain) was a Haitian author, poet, novelist, essayist, political activist, and diplomat born on June 4, 1907. He was one of the more famous twentieth century Haitian intellectuals.

Jacques Roumain was born in Port-au-Prince, the Haitian capital. He was the first of eleven siblings, son of Auguste Roumain, a landowner, and Emilie Auguste, daughter of Tancrède Auguste, who was president of the Haitian Republic between 1912 and 1913. Roumain began his education at Saint-Louis de Gonzague, a prestigious private academy, but in 1922, he was sent to Switzerland to continue his studies. In 1926 Roumain left Switzerland for Spain to study agronomy, yet he gave up his studies and focused on bullfighting. His interest in the sport led him to attend classes on the subject and to write the poem “Corrida” in Madrid in May 1926.

Sources: 
Jacques Roumain, Oeuvres complètes. Edition critique coordonnée par León-François Hoffmann. Madrid et Nanterre: Allca XX, 2003; “Roumain, Jacques (1907–1944),” Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/roumain-jacques-1907-1944;  Alexis, Jacques Stephan, “Of the Marvelous Realism of the Haitians,” Presence Africaine (June-November 1956): 249-275.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Sciences Po Paris

Brown, Dorothy Lavinia (1919-2004)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Dr. Dorothy Lavinia Brown was a medical pioneer, educator, and community leader.  In 1948-1949 Brown became the first African American female appointed to a general surgery residency in the de jure racially segregated South.  In 1956 Brown became the first unmarried woman in Tennessee authorized to be an adoptive parent, and in 1966 she became the first black woman representative to the state legislature in Tennessee.

Brown was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on January 7, 1919. Within weeks after she was born, Brown’s unmarried mother Edna Brown moved to upstate New York and placed her five-month-old baby daughter in the predominantly white Troy Orphan Asylum (later renamed Vanderhyden Hall) in Troy, New York. Brown was a demonstrably bright child, and became interested in medicine after she had a tonsillectomy at age five.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

East Pasco Co-op (1965- )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Art Fletcher, Founder of the East Pasco Co-op
Image Ownership: Public domain

The East Pasco African American community emerged quickly during World War II when thousands of black workers were recruited to help construct the Hanford Atomic Energy Complex just north of neighboring Richland, Washington. African American workers and their families were confined to the area called East Pasco which, although prosperous during and immediately after World War II, eventually became an economically depressed area of Pasco by the late 1960s.

The East Pasco Self-Help Cooperative, founded by Arthur Fletcher who arrived in the town in 1965, was a major attempt to address the poverty of the community. Fletcher, a Republican, believed that a mixture of self-help and self-reliance, rather than government assistance, was the key to fighting poverty. He employed this strategy in East Pasco when he founded the East Pasco Co-op.

Sources: 
“From Pasco, Washington to Washington, DC: Arthur A. Fletcher and the American Dream, 1965-1968,” https://aha.confex.com/aha/2014/webprogram/Paper14014.html; David Hamilton Golland, Constructing Affirmative Action: The Struggle for Equal Employment Opportunity (University Press of Kentucky, 2011); “Arthur Fletcher,” http://www.encyclopedia.com/african-american-focus/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/fletcher-arthur; “Watchdog of Labor,” Ebony (April 1971); Joshua D. Farrington, Black Republicans and the Transformation of the GOP (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016); “Pasco, Wash.,” The Eagle (July 1968).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

William "Willie the Pro" Thrower (1930-2002)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain
William ‘Willie the Pro” Thrower was the first African American to play as a quarterback in the National Football League (NFL). Thrower was born on March 22, 1930, in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. Although his statistics as a college and high school football player are good, and his pro statistics are decent, his greater achievement was in breaking the racial barrier of what was then a predominantly white sport.

Thrower first started playing competitive football during high school, and became an All-American.  That achievement brought some interest from some major colleges and universities. Duffy Daugherty, who was then the assistant coach at Michigan State University, recruited Thrower. Since a number of players from his high school team attended Michigan State, Thrower chose the institution for both academic and athletic reasons.  Although he was only 5 feet 11 inches tall, he could throw the ball as far an accurately as anyone then playing in college.  
Sources: 
Charles K. Ross, Outsides the Lines: African Americans and the Integration of the National Football League (New York: New York University Press, 1999); https://www.theguardian.com/news/2002/apr/17/guardianobituaries.americansports; http://www.biography.com/people/willie-thrower-213033.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

9th Cavalry Regiment (1866-1944)

Vignette Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
African American History in the West
Ninth Cavalry at Fort Davis, Texas, ca. 1877
Image Ownership: Public Domain
The 9th Cavalry was one of the original six regiments of the regular U.S. Army set aside for black enlisted men.  These were authorized by Congress in the act of July 28, 1866 reorganizing the army for post-Civil War service, mainly against native peoples in the West.  Colonel Edward Hatch, an officer with no military experience prior to the Civil War but who distinguished himself as the commander of an Iowa cavalry regiment during the rebellion, was the 9th’s first commander.  Initial recruiting efforts centered on New Orleans and vicinity.  By February 1867, twelve companies were organized and on their way to Texas.

The regiment participated in numerous frontier campaigns, against the Comanche, the Ute, and most notably the Apache between 1877 and 1881.  In the early 1880s it also engaged in efforts to restrain settlers seeking to take up land in Indian Territory before that area was legally open.  In the 1870s the regiment was involved in the El Paso Salt War and in the 1890s it participated in efforts to restore order in the wake of the Johnson County, Wyoming Cattle War (1892) and railroad labor disputes (1894).  Colonel Hatch remained in command until his death at Fort Robinson, Nebraska in April 1889.  Forty-four of its soldiers were killed in action during this period, 28 against the Apaches.
Sources: 
Frank N. Schubert, Buffalo Soldiers, Braves and the Brass: the Story of Fort Robinson, Nebraska (Shippensburg, PA:  White Mane, 1993); Schubert, Black Valor:  Buffalo Soldiers and the Medal of Honor, 1870-1898 (Wilmington, DE:  SR Books, 1997).
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Edwards, Thyra J. (1897-1953)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Thyra J. Edwards, born in 1897, the granddaugher of runaway slaves, grew up in Houston, Texas and started her career there as a school teacher.  Eventually she moved to Gary, Indiana and later Chicago, Illinois where she was employed as a social worker.  Edwards would eventually become a world lecturer, journalist, labor organizer, women's rights advocate, and civil rights activist all before her 40th birthday.   

Sources: 
Gregg Andrews, Thyra J. Edwards: Black Activist in the Global Freedom Struggle (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2011); E. Carlton-LaNey, ed., African American Leadership: An Empowerment Tradition in Social Welfare History (Washington, D.C.: National Association of Social Workers, 2001). 
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Howard University

Greenberg, Jack (1924-2016)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public domain

Jack Greenberg was a prominent civil rights lawyer, directing the NAACP Legal Defense Fund (LDF) for 23 years and arguing crucial cases at the U.S. Supreme Court. He was born in New York City, New York on December 22, 1924 to Jewish immigrant parents Max and Bertha Greenberg. During World War II, he served in the U.S. Navy and participated in the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. While serving, he was distressed by the racial inequality that he saw in Navy ranks. In 1945, he graduated from Columbia University.

Sources: 
Richard Severo and William McDonald, “Jack Greenberg, a Courthouse Pillar of the Civil Rights Movement, Dies at 91,” New York Times Oct. 12, 2016; Gary Gately, “Jack Greenberg, civil rights lawyer who helped argue Brown v. Board, dies at 91,” Washington Post, Oct. 12, 2016.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Nicholas, Jean Marcel (a.k.a. Johnny Nicholas, 1918-1945)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
Hans Pape and Jean Marcel Nicholas in Paris, Date Unknown
Image Ownership: Public domain

Expatriate, impersonator, and concentration camp survivor Jean Marcel Nicholas was born October 5, 1918 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, one of the three children of Hilderic Nicholas, a secretary of the British Embassy in that city, and Lucie Dalicy Nicholas. His family was financially secure and able to send him to France to be educated at the Lycée Aristide Briand (Aristide Briand School) at Saint-Nazaire and the College de Garcon at Grasse. In 1937, he left for Martinique and enlisted in the French Navy. After discharge from the Navy with a head injury in 1939 he returned to France and briefly attended medical school at the University of Paris.

Sources: 
Hugh Wray McCann and David C. Smith, The Sear for Johnny Nicholas: The Secret of Nazi Prisoner No. 44451 (CreateSpace, 2011); Hugh McCann, “Macho ‘American’ Posed as Doctor in Nazi Prison Camps,” in Los Angeles Times (March 29, 1984); “Blacks in Nazi Germany” at  https://www.lipstickalley.com/threads/blacks-in-nazi-germany.1177802/.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian