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Senegal

Wheatley, Phillis (1754-1784)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain
Enslaved in Senegal [in a region that is now in Gambia] at age eight and brought to America on a schooner called the Phillis (for which she was apparently named), was purchased by Susannah and John Wheatley, who soon recognized her intellect and facility with language.  Susannah Wheatley taught Phillis to read not only English but some Latin.  While yet in her teens, Phillis Wheatley became the first African American woman to publish a book of poetry, and the third woman in the American colonies to do so.  That book, Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, became controversial twice.
Sources: 
Henry Louis Gates, Jr., The Trials of Phillis Wheatley: America’s First Black Poet and Her Encounters with the Founding Fathers (New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2003); http://www.jmu.edu/madison/center/main_pages/madison_archives/era/african/free/wheatley/bio.htm.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Brigham Young University

Aldridge, Ira (1807-1867)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain
Ira Frederick Aldridge was the first African American actor to achieve success on the international stage. He also pushed social boundaries by playing opposite white actresses in England and becoming known as the preeminent Shakespearean actor and tragedian of the 19th Century.
Sources: 
Bernth Lindfors, Ira Aldridge, the African Roscius (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2007); Bernth Lindfors, Ira Aldridge: The Early Years, 1807-1833 (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2011); Bernth Lindfors, Ira Aldridge: The Vagabond Years, 1833-1852 (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2011); Herbert Marshall, Ira Aldridge: Negro Tragedian (Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1993); Anthony D. Hill, An Historical Dictionary of African American Theater (Prevessin, France: Scarecrow Press, 2007.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Dunham, Katherine (1909-2006)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Courtesy of Jerome Robbins Dance Division,
The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts,
Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations.
Katherine Dunham was born on June 22, 1909 in Chicago, Illinois to parents Albert and Fanny Dunham.  She was of mixed heritage with African, Madagascan, Canadian-French and American Indian ancestry.  Dunham was raised in Joliet, Illinois and didn’t begin formal dance training until her late teens.  

In 1931, at the age of 22, Katherine Dunham opened her first dance school, with the help of her teacher Madame Ludmila Speranzeva.  The school, located in Chicago, soon became famous for its dancers who performed the modern dance ballet, “Negro Rhapsody.”  Dunham graduated from the University of Chicago in 1936 with a bachelor’s degree in social anthropology.  She later earned a master’s degree from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. from Northwestern University.  While an undergraduate, Dunham opened another school, the Negro Dance Group where in four years she trained 150 black youth.
Sources: 
Jessie Carney Smith, Epic Lives: One Hundred Black Women Who Made a Difference (Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 1993); http://www.pbs.org/wnet/freetodance/biographies/dunham.html
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington

Aggrey, Orison Rudolph (1926- )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"

U.S. Ambassador Orison Rudolph Aggrey was born in Salisbury, North Carolina, the son of James Emman Kwegyir, an African immigrant who became an American college professor, and Rose Rudolph (Douglass) Aggrey, an African American woman. He earned a B.S. degree from Hampton Institute, where he graduated as valedictorian in 1946, and an M.S. in journalism from Syracuse University (New York) in 1948. After encountering difficulty in obtaining a reporting post with a major white daily newspaper in 1950, he applied for a position with the information and cultural branch of the U.S. State Department in Washington, D.C. Despite his high scores on the Civil Service entrance examinations, he also encountered difficulty with his application. Aggrey was offered a post only after George L. P. Weaver, who was then assistant Secretary of Labor for international affairs (and one of the most important blacks in the administration of President Harry S.

Sources: 
Alton Hornsby, Jr. and Angela M. Hornsby, “From the Grassroots” Profiles of Contemporary African American Leaders (Montgomery, Alabama: E-Book Time LLC, 2007), p. 1-3.
Affiliation: 
Morehouse College/University of Mississippi

Condé, Maryse (1937- )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History

 

Sources: 
Leah Hewitt, Autobiographical Tightropes (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990); Françoise Pfaff, Conversations with Maryse Condé (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Armstrong Atlantic State University

Musa, Mansa (1280-1337)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
Fourteenth Century Italian Map of West Africa
Showing Mansa Musa 
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Mansa Musa, fourteenth century emperor of the Mali Empire, is the medieval African ruler most known to the world outside Africa.  His elaborate pilgrimage to the Muslim holy city of Mecca in 1324 introduced him to rulers in the Middle East and in Europe.  His leadership of Mali, a state which stretched across two thousand miles from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake Chad and which included all or parts of the modern nations of Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Chad, ensured decades of peace and prosperity in Western Africa. 

Sources: 
Djibril Tamsir Niane, “Mansa Musa” in New Encyclopedia of Africa, John Middleton and Joseph C. Miller, eds. (New York: Scribner’s, 2008); Djibril Tamsir Niane, Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century (London: Heinemann, 1984): David C. Conrad and Djanka Tassey Conde, Sunjata: A West African Epic of the Mande Peoples (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 2004).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Diop, Cheikh Anta (1923-1986)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History

 

Image Ownership: Public Domain

Distinguished historian and Pan-Africanist political leader, Cheikh Anta Diop was born in Diourbel, Senegal on December 23, 1933 to a Muslim Wolof family. Part of the peasant class, his family belonged to the African Mouride Islamic sect. Diop grew up in both Koranic and French colonial schools. Upon completing his bachelor’s degree in Senegal, Diop moved to Paris, where he began his graduate studies at the Sorbonne in 1946 in physics.

Sources: 
John Middleton and Joseph C. Miller, eds., New Encyclopedia of Africa (Detroit: Thomson/Gale, c2008); Kevin Shillington, ed., Encyclopedia of African History (New York: Fitzroy Dearborn 2005).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Evergreen State College

Senghor, Léopold Sédar (1906-2001)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History

 

Image Ownership: Public Domain

Scholar, African traditionalist poet, and Senegal’s first president, Léopold Sédar Senghor was born on October 9, 1906 in Joal, Senegal. His father, Basie Diogoye Senghor, was a Malinké landowner. His mother, Gnilane Bakhoum, came from a Christian Fulani family. They gave Senghor a European name to reflect both the noble Serer culture they identified with, as well as their Catholic faith. Senghor grew up with his father’s four wives and his twenty-four siblings.

At the age of seven, Senghor was sent to a Catholic mission school, where he first learned French. At 13, he decided to enter the Catholic priesthood. He attended Libermann seminary in Dakar but in 1926, dissuaded by the seminary, switched to the secondary school Lycée Van Vollenhoven. He graduated from high school with honors and his classical languages teacher persuaded the colonial administration to grant Senghor a scholarship to pursue literary studies in France.

Sources: 
Melvin Dixon, Léopold Sédar Senghor: The Collected Poetry, Trans. by Melvin Dixon (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991); Kevin Shillington, ed., Encyclopedia of African History (New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2005).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Evergreen State College

Mali Empire (ca. 1200- )

Entry Type: 
Places
History Type: 
Global African History
Map of the Mali Empire
Image Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
Image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Mali Empire was the second of three West African empires to emerge in the vast savanna grasslands located between the Sahara Desert to the north and the coastal rain forest in the south.  Beginning as a series of small successor trading states, Ancient Ghana, the empire grew to encompass the territory between the Atlantic Ocean and Lake Chad, a distance of nearly 1,800 miles. Encompassing all or part of the modern nations of Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, and Chad, at its height in 1300, Mali was one of the largest empires in the world.  

Sources: 
Nehemia Levtzion, Ancient Ghana and Mali (New York: Africana Publishing Company, 1980); Kevin Shillington, History of Africa (New York: Palgrave, 2005); Kent Glenzer, Dorothea E. Schultz and Stephen Wooten, “Mali” in the New Encyclopedia of Africa, John Middleton, and Joseph C. Miller, eds., (New York: Scribner’s, 2008); Ari Nave and Elizabeth Heath, “The Mali Empire” in Africana, The Encyclopedia of the African & African American Experience, Kwame Anthony Appiah, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., (New York: Oxford: University Press, 2005).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Songhai Empire (ca. 1375-1591)

Entry Type: 
Places
History Type: 
Global African History
The Empire of Songhai
Image Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History,
Image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Songhai Empire was the largest and last of the three major pre-colonial empires to emerge in West Africa.  From its capital at Gao on the Niger River, Songhai expanded in all directions until it stretched from the Atlantic Ocean (modern Senegal and Gambia) to what is now Northwest Nigeria and central Niger.  Gao, Songhai’s capital, which remains to this day a small Niger River trading center, was home to the famous Goa Mosque and the Tomb of Askia, the most important of the Songhai emperors. The cities of Timbuktu and Djenne were the other major cultural and commercial centers of the empire.

Sources: 
E. W. Bovill, The Golden Trade of the Moors (New York: Oxford University Press, 1968); Thomas A. Hale and Nouhou Malio, Scribe, Griot and Novelist: Narrative Interpretations of the Songhay Empire (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1990); Kevin Shillington, History of Africa (New York: Palgrave, 2005); Ari Nave, “Songhai Empire” in Africana, The Encyclopedia of the African & African American Experience, Kwame Anthony Appiah, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. eds., (New York: Oxford: University Press, 2005; Timothy Insoll, "Looting the antiquities of Mali: the story continues at Gao." Antiquity 67: 256 (Sept 1993).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Negritude Movement

Entry Type: 
Misc
History Type: 
Global African History
Negritude Painting, "La Jungla" by Cuban-born
Afro-Chinese Painter Wilfredo Lam
Image Ownership: Public Domain
The literary movement, Negritude, was born out of the Paris intellectual environment of 1930s and 1940s. It is a product of black writers joining together through the French language to assert their cultural identity.
Sources: 
Clayton Eshleman and Annette Smith, Aimé Césaire: Collected Poetry, Trans. by Eshleman and Smith (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983); Lilyan Kesteloot, Black Writers in French: A Literary History of Negritude, Trans. by Ellen Conroy Kennedy (Washington D.C.: Howard University Press, 1991).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
The Evergreen State College

The Pan-African Congresses, 1900-1945

 

Speakers at The Pan African Congress,
Brussels, Belgium,1921
Image Ownership: Public Domain

In the nearly half century between 1900 and 1945 various political leaders and intellectuals from Europe, North America, and Africa met six times to discuss colonial control of Africa and develop strategies for eventual African political liberation. In the article that follows, historian Saheed Adejumobi describes the goals and objectives of these six Pan African Congresses and assesses their impact on Africa.     

 

Pan-Africanist ideals emerged in the late nineteenth century in response to European colonization and exploitation of the African continent. Pan-Africanist philosophy held that slavery and colonialism depended on and encouraged negative, unfounded categorizations of the race, culture, and values of African people. These destructive beliefs in turn gave birth to intensified forms of racism, the likes of which Pan-Africanism sought to eliminate.

Summary: 
In the nearly half century between 1900 and 1945 various political leaders and intellectuals from Europe, North America, and Africa met six times to discuss colonial control of Africa and develop strategies for eventual African political liberation. In the article that follows, historian Saheed Adejumobi describes the goals and objectives of these six Pan African Congresses and assesses their impact on Africa.
Sources: 

Saheed A. Adejumobi, “The Pan-African Congress,” in Organizing Black America: An Encyclopedia of African American Associations, Nina Mjagkij, ed. (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 2001).

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Seattle University

Vieira, Patrick (1976- )

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History

 

Image Ownership: Public Domain

Patrick Vieira, one of Europe’s leading soccer players, was born in the Cape Verdean community of Dakar, Senegal, on June 23, 1976.  He left Senegal at the age of eight when his family moved to Europe and settled in Dreux, in northwest France.  Soon after their arrival the family became citizens of France.  

Vieira began his professional soccer career playing for several local youth clubs in France.  Then in 1993, at age 17, he joined AC Cannes Soccer Club.  The French club provided an atmosphere for the young 6-foot-4 center midfielder to advance.  After three seasons with AC Cannes, Vieira signed with AC Milan, one of the leading clubs in Italy.  Although he hoped to break through to the first team in the 1995-96 season, Vieira spent much of his time on the reserve squad.

Sources: 

Trevor Huggins, “Vieira out of crunch Italy clash,” Four Four Two Magazine, June 16, 2008; Patrick Vieira, “Vieira,” The Orion Publishing Group, November 2006.

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington

Ligue Universelle pour la Défense de la Race Noire (1924)

Entry Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
Global African History
George Marke, Prince Kojo Tovalou-Houenou,
and Marcus Garvey, 1924
Image Ownership: Public Domain

The Ligue Universelle pour la Défense de la Race Noire (LUDRN) was a Pan-African association created on April 30, 1924, by Kojo Tovalou Houénou known as Tovalou, descendant of the last King of Dahomey (today’s Benin). The headquarters of the association was located in Paris and the executive committee composed of seven black members from the French Empire. Tovalou, a military doctor during the First World War, was designated president of the association and René Maran, a colonial administrator for Martinique, was vice president. The objectives of the association were the defense and protection of the rights of black people all over the world, the development of solidarity amongst the black population, and the evolution of the race through education.

Sources: 

Emilie Derlin Zinsou and Luc Zoumémou, Kojo Tovalou Houénou,
précurseur, 1887-1936: pannégrisme et modernité (Paris: Maisonneuve
& Larose, 2004); Imanuel Geiss, The Pan-African Movement: A history
of Pan-Africanism in America, Europe, and Africa
(New York: Africana
Publishing Co., 1974); Iheanachor Egonu, “Les Continents and the
Francophone Pan-Negro Movement,” Phylon 42:3 (Fall 1981).

Affiliation: 
University of Nantes, France

Tirailleurs Senegalais

Entry Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
Global African History
Tirailleurs Senegalais in World War I France
Image Ownership: Public Domain

The Tirailleurs Senegalais were West African Colonial Army troops who fought for the French during World War I, World War II, and in numerous conquest, police, and colonial counterinsurgency operations. Despite the name, the Tirailleurs Senegalais were composed of soldiers recruited and conscripted from throughout French West Africa and not just from Senegal. However, recruitment and casualty burdens for Senegalese soldiers often numbered among the highest of the Tirailleurs Senegalais.

Sources: 

Myron Echenberg, Colonial Conscripts: The Tirailleurs Senegalais in
French West Africa, 1857-1960
(Portsmouth: Heinemann Educational Books,
Inc., 1991); Joe Lunn, Memoirs of the Maelstrom: A Senegalese Oral
History of the First World War
(Portsmouth: Heinemann Educational
Books, Inc., 1999).

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Diagne, Blaise (1872-1934)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Galaye M’baye Diagne, the first African elected at the French National Assembly and to obtain a post in the French government, was born on October 13, 1872, on Gorée Island, Senegal. His father, Niokhor Diagne, was a cook, and his mother, Gnagna Anthony Preira, a servant. While still very young, Diagne was placed in various Métis (mixed race) families, and finally adopted by a wealthy Christian Métis, Adolphe Crespin, who renamed him Blaise. Crespin sent him to the Brother of Ploemel School for his primary education. A brilliant pupil, Diagne pursued his secondary education in Aix-en-Provence, France. He passed the French Customs Service entrance examination in Senegal in 1891.

Sources: 

“Diagne, Blaise (1872?-1934),” in Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis
Gates, Jr., eds.,  Africana: the Encyclopedia of the African &
African American Experience
  (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005);
Amady Aldy Dieng, Blaise Diagne: député noir de l’Afrique (Paris:
Editions Chaka, 1990); “Diagne, Gueye, and Politics of Senegal, 1920s
and 1930s,” in Kevin Shillington, ed., Encyclopedia of African History
(New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2005).

Affiliation: 
University of Nantes, France

Cheikh Anta Diop University (1957--)

Entry Type: 
Institutions
History Type: 
Global African History
Class at Cheikh Anta Diop University
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Cheikh Anta Diop University or Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), located in Dakar, Senegal, is among the largest universities in French-speaking West Africa.

The UCAD has a relatively long history as it has evolved from the Ecole de Médecine de Dakar, a Medical School that was founded in 1918 by the French Colonial administration. A January 1918 decree led to the formation of the school mainly due to the need to train medical assistants to help colonial doctors. In 1936, the Institut Francais d’Afrique Noire (IFAN), a research center for African studies, was also created in Dakar.

Sources: 

http://www.ucad.sn/; Félix-Marie Affa’a and Thérèse Des Lierres, L’Afrique: Face à sa laborieuse appropriation de l’Université (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2002).

Affiliation: 
University of Nantes, France

Four Communes of Senegal (1887-1960)

Entry Type: 
Places
History Type: 
Global African History
Originaire in St. Louis, Senegal, ca. 1860
Image Ownership: Public Domain

The Four Communes of Senegal in French West Africa, Gorée, Dakar, Rufisque, and Saint-Louis, were the only places during the African Colonial period, where African inhabitants were granted the same rights as French Citizens.

As early as 1840, the importance of Gorée Island and Saint-Louis (located on an island of the Senegal River) as key French trading post settlements led to the establishment of a General Council in each colony. In 1848, the Second French Republic awarded to its Senegalese colonies the right to send an elected representative to the French National Assembly. Later in 1872, a decree granted to Gorée and Saint Louis the same advantages as French Communes.

Sources: 

“Senegal: Colonial Period: Four Communes: Dakar, Saint-Louis, Gorée and Rufisque,” in Encyclopedia of African History, Kevin Shillington, Ed., (New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2005); “Senegal: French Colony,” in Africana: the Encyclopedia of the African & African American Experience, Kwame Anthony Appiah, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Eds., (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005); Mamadou Diouf, “The French Colonial Policy of Assimilation and the Civility of the Originaires of the Four Communes (Senegal): A Nineteenth Century Globalization Project,” Development and Change 29:4 (December 2002)

Affiliation: 
University of Nantes, France

Gorée Island, Senegal

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
Map of Gorée Island, Senegal
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Gorée Island, located two miles from the Senegalese capital, Dakar, was a critical trading port for Europeans and played a major role as an entrepot for slaves taken from West Africa.  Long before being conquered by the Europeans, the island was called Bezeriche Island or Ber and, according to some accounts, was settled by a population of Wolof (West African ethnic group) fishermen.

Sources: 

Jean Delcourt, L’île de Gorée (Dakar: Editions Clairafrique, 1975);
“Gorée Island, Senegal,” in Africana: the Encyclopedia of the African
& African American Experience
, Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis
Gates, Jr., eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005); “Gorée
Island (Senegal),” in International Dictionary of Historic Places,
Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, and Sharon La Boda, eds. (Chicago :
Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1994-1996).

Affiliation: 
University of Nantes, France

Said, Omar Ibn (1770-1864)

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Omar Ibn Said, also known as "Uncle Moreau" was unusual among enslaved people in the antebellum United States in that before he was captured he was highly educated and could read and write fluently at a time when most African slaves were illiterate.  Said’s autobiography is unique because it is the only personal account of a slave written in his native language while he was in bondage in the United States.

Omar Ibn Said was born in 1770 along the Senegal River in Futa Tooro, West Africa to a wealthy Muslim family.  When his father died, Said at age five was sent to a nearby town to study Islam and become a teacher.  Religion was paramount in Said’s life and he was devout to the Muslim faith.  With extensive religious training Said became well educated and fluent in Arabic.  

Sources: 

“Autobiography of Omar Ibn Said, Slave in North Carolina, 1831,” The
American Historical Review
30:  4 (July, 1925); http://sites.davidson.edu/archives/encyclopedia/omar-ibn-sayyid; Sylvaine A.
Diouf,   Servants of Allah:  African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas
(New York: New York University Press, 1998).

Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Tirailleurs Sénégalais in the Indochina War (1947-1954)

Entry Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
Global African History
Battle of Dien Bien Phu, 1954
Image Ownership: Public Domain
The Indochina War (1947-1954) pitted the French Colonial government against the Vietminh, the Communist Vietnamese devoted to the liberation of their country from French colonial rule.  During that conflict the French used thousands of Tirailleurs Sénégalais, soldiers recruited throughout the French African colonies, for service against the Vietminh.   

The French began recruiting Senegalese soldiers in 1947 as the war began and they found they urgently needed military forces in Indochina.  Considering French manpower shortages because of the recently ended Second World War, military budget restrictions, and the great number of African soldiers demobilized in 1945-6 at the end of the European conflict, the French government turned to the Tirailleurs Sénégalais: African soldiers who, since the 19th century, were often used due to their relatively low cost.
Sources: 
Eugène-Jean Duval, L’épopée des Tirailleurs Sénégalais (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2005); Martin Windrow, The last valley: Dien Bien Phu and the French Defeat in Vietnam (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2004).
Affiliation: 
University of Nantes, France

Mouride Sufi Brotherhood

Entry Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
Global African History
Ahmadu Bamba,
Founder of Mouride Sufi Brotherhood
Image Ownership: Public Domain
The Mouride Sufi Brotherhood is a sect of Islam that boasts over four million followers today, mostly concentrated in Senegal and The Gambia.

The Mouride Sufi Order was founded by Sheikh Ahmadou Bamba in 1883 in the Senegambia region of West Africa.  At this period there was a great deal of social dislocation and economic hardship in this region because of the impact of colonialism.  Bamba thought that people needed to be more directly connected with Allah through hard work and prayer.  He also taught his pupils that they should be responsible for their behaviors, have a useful occupation, and should be self-reliant.  Originally the followers of the Mourides were youth, former slaves, and soldiers of the colonial administration or those from the Wolof ethnic group.   

Sources: 
Eric Ross, Sufi City: Urban Design and Archetypes in Touba  (Rochester, NY:  University of Rochester Press, 2006); Allen F. Roberts and Mary Nooter Roberts,  A Saint in the City: Sufi Arts of Urban Senegal  (Los Angeles:  UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 2003); Donal B. Cruise O’Brien and Christian Coulon, Charisma and Brotherhood in African Islam  (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1988); Martin A. Klein, Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West Africa  (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

African Union (2002- )

Entry Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
Global African History
African Union Troops
on Patrol in Mogadishu, 2007
Image Ownership: Public Domain
The African Union (AU) is an alliance of 53 African states that aim to advance and integrate Africa as a continent. The Union was created on September  9, 1999 when the Sirte Declaration was put forward by the Organization of African Unity (OAU), which proposed to form a new organization to take its place. On July 9, 2002 the AU was formed, with its headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The AU’s aims are similar to those of the old OAU: protecting individual African states sovereignty; improving the standard of life for Africans; advancing African research in technology and science; and dispelling the vestiges of colonialism in the African continent through empowering both African economies and cultures. The AU, however, has a stronger emphasis on economic and political integration of African states than the OAU, and takes a more active role in settling internal disputes between its member states.
Sources: 
Molefi Kete Asante, The History of Africa: The Quest for Eternal Harmony, (Routledge: New York & London, 2007); Official website: http://au.int/en/; BBC website: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/3870303.stm.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Sussex, England

Ali, Ayaan Hirsi (1969- )

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
Image Ownership: Public Domain
Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Infidel (New York: Free Press, 2007); Ida Lichter, Muslim Women Reformers: Inspiring Voices Against Oppression (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 2009); R. D. Grillo, The Family in Question: Immigrant and Ethnic Minorities in Multicultural Europe (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008).
Contributor: 

Ba, Mariama (1929-1981)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Writer and political activist Mariama Ba was born in 1929 in Dakar, Senegal to a well-to-do family.  Her father worked in the French colonial administration and in 1956 became the Minister of Health of Senegal.  Her mother died when she was young.  Ba was raised by her maternal grandparents who emphasized conservative Muslim values.  She attended a religious school, but was also educated in the French tradition.  Due to the intervention of her father, she was enrolled in 1943 in the Ecole Normale (Teacher Training School) at Rufisque, a town some 25 miles away from Dakar where she received her diploma in 1947.  Ba worked as a teacher from 1947 to 1959, before becoming an academic inspector.  During this period, Ba had nine children with her husband, Obeye Diop.  The couple separated and Ba was forced to raise her children as a single parent. 

Sources: 
Laura Charlotte Kempen, Mariama Ba?, Rigoberta Menchu?, and Postcolonial Feminism. Currents in comparative Romance languages and literatures, vol. 97 (New York: P. Lang, 2001); Ada Uzoamaka Azodo, Emerging Perspectives on Mariama Ba?: Postcolonialism, Feminism, and Postmodernism (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2003); Ire?ne Assiba d' Almeida, Francophone African Women Writers: Destroying the Emptiness of Silence (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994).
Contributor: 

Tukulor Empire (1852-1864)

Entry Type: 
Places
History Type: 
Global African History

 

The Tukulor Empire
Image Ownership: Public Domain

The Tukulor Empire was a Muslim theocracy established during the mid-19th century major jihads (holy wars) in Western Africa. At its apogee, the empire extended from Senegal eastward to Timbuktu, a distance of 1,500 miles. The empire's founder, Al Hajj Umar, a Senegalese Islamic scholar and leader, had gained notoriety by popularizing the Islamic Sufi order, the Tijaniyah.  The members of that order helped him gain the loyalty of thousands across the Western Sudan. 

Sources: 
“Al-Hajj Umar Tal,” in Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds.,  Africana: the Encyclopedia of the African & African American Experience  (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005); “Tukolor empire of al-Hajj Umar,” in Kevin Shillington, ed., Encyclopedia of African History (New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2005);  Kevin Shillington, History of Africa (London: Macmillan, 1995).
Affiliation: 
University of Nantes (France)

dan Fodio, Usman (1754-1817)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
Map of the Sultanate of Sokoto
Image Ownership: Public Domain
Islamic preacher, reformer, scholar, and statesman, Usman dan Fodio was born on December 15, 1754 in the village of Maratta, in the Hausa city-state of Gobir, in what is today northern Nigeria.  He was a descendant of the early Fulani settlers in Hausaland in the 15th century.  He spent his youth in the devout pursuit of Islamic religious education, and his early manhood preaching, teaching, and writing.

Dan Fodio became an itinerant Muslim preacher in 1774, moving among rural communities.  He was a leader in the expansion of Islam across the Hausa countryside, increasing the popular basis for religious teaching and bringing literacy to numerous small communities.   He wrote poems and stories of mysticism that increased his popularity as a teacher and preacher.    
Sources: 
Nehemia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels, eds., The History of Islam in Africa (Athens:  Ohio University Press, 2000); Kevin Shillington, Encyclopedia of African History (New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2004).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Dakar, Senegal (1857- )

Entry Type: 
Places
History Type: 
Global African History

"The Ablest Midwife That Wee Knowe in the Land": Mistress Alice Tilly and the Women of Boston and Dorchester, 1649-1650 In the article below independent historian Robin Loftin explores the past, present, and possible future relationship between the world’s most populous nation and people of African ancestry.

Africa and China have had contact for more than a thousand years. Some scholars assert that the contacts began as early as 4th century A.D. but convincing evidence is sporadic or lacking. Beginning with the Tang dynasty (618 A.D. to 907 A.D.) documented evidence of contact and trade exists showing a relationship between China and the city-states of east Africa. This relationship has evolved over the centuries and led to a migration of Africans to China to study, trade, and act as diplomats. At least one account indicates that Du Huan was the first Chinese to visit Africa, probably in Nubia, during the 8th century A.D.

Summary: 
In the article below independent historian Robin Loftin explores the past, present, and possible future relationship between the world’s most populous nation and people of African ancestry.<br /> <br /> Africa and China have had contact for more than a thousand years. Some scholars assert that the contacts began as early as 4th century A.D. but convincing evidence is sporadic or lacking. Beginning with the Tang dynasty (618 A.D. to 907 A.D.) documented evidence of contact and trade exists showing a relationship between China and the city-states of east Africa.  This relationship has evolved over the centuries and led to a migration of Africans to China to study, trade, and act as diplomats. At least one account indicates that Du Huan was the first Chinese to visit Africa, probably in Nubia, during the 8th century A.D.
Sources: 
Don Wyatt, The Blacks of Premodern China (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010); Philip Snow, The Star Raft: China’s Encounter with Africa (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988); Adams Bodomo, Africans in China: A Sociocultural Study and its Implications for Africa-China Relations (Amherst, New York: Cambria Press, 2012); Julie Wilensky, “The Magical Kunlun and ‘Devil Slaves’: Chinese Perceptions of Dark-skinned People and Africa before 1500,” Sino-Platonic Papers 122: 1 (July 2002);Marc Gallicchio, The African American Encounter with Japan and China: Black Internationalism in Asia, 1895 – 1945 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2000); Robin D. G. Kelley and Betsy Esch, “Black Like Mao: Red China and the Black Revolution,” Souls (Fall 1999). http://africansinchina.net/.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Elam-Thomas, Harriet (1941 – )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Harriet Elam-Thomas is a diplomat and professor who served as United States Ambassador to Senegal from 1999 to 2002.  She retired in 2005 from the U.S. State Department as a Senior Foreign Service Officer with the rank of Career Minister.  

Born on September 15, 1941 in Boston, Massachusetts, Harriet Elam attended Simmons College in Boston where she received a B.S. degree in International Business. She also received an M.A. degree in Public Diplomacy from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. She speaks fluent French, Greek, and Turkish.

Sources: 
“Meet the Ambassador,” U.S. Department of State Archives, July 29, 2002, http://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ei/rls/12192.htm; “Out of Date Biographies,” U.S. Department of State Archives, March 19, 2002, http://2001-2009.state.gov/outofdate/bios/e/8835.htm; “Board of Trustees,” Institute of International Education, January 1, 2015, http://www.iie.org/EN/Who-We-Are/Governance/Board-of-Trustees/harriet-elam-thomas.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Independent Historian

Reed, Frankie A. (1954- )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Frankie Annette Reed is a career Foreign Service officer who has held a variety of diplomatic postings in Europe, Africa, and Pacific Island nations.   Between 2011 and 2013, she served as concurrent Ambassador to the Republic of the Fiji Islands, the Republic of Nauru, the Kingdom of Tonga, Tuvalu, and the Republic of Kiribati.  Reed was also promoted in 2011 to her current standing as a Minister-Counselor within the Senior Foreign Service.
Sources: 
“An Interview with Frankie A. Reed, U.S. Ambassador to Fiji,” http://thepolitic.org/an-interview-with-frankie-a-reed-u-s-ambassador-to-fiji/ ); “Howard Alumna Reed Sworn in as Ambassador to Fiji,” http://www.howard.edu/newsroom/releases/2011/20110929HowardAlumnaReedSworninasAmbassadortoFiji.htm;  and “U.S. Consul General Frankie A. Reed,”
http://melbourne.usconsulate.gov/consul_general.html.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
Georgia Southwestern State University

Belley-Mars, Jean-Baptiste (1747?–1805?)

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
Global African History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Jean-Baptiste Belley-Mars, who represented Saint-Domingue in the French National Convention in Paris in 1794, is widely credited with persuading that body to abolish slavery in France and its overseas colonies. Belley-Mars as a boy was kidnapped by slave catchers on the island of Goree near Dakar, Senegal, and shipped off to the French Caribbean colony of Saint-Domingue (now the Republic of Haiti). He purchased his freedom from his owner, enlisted in the military, and served in a contingent of black and mulatto troops called Volunteer Chasseurs that was sent to fight against the British in Georgia during in the American Revolutionary War. Returning to Saint-Domingue, Belley-Mars became a well-to-do planter with a penchant for politics.
Sources: 
Robert Fikes Jr., “Jean-Baptiste Belley-Mars: The Obscure Life, The Authentic Legacy,” Negro History Bulletin, 45 (January 1982); http://blog.catherinedelors.com/citizen-jean-baptiste-belley-from-slavery-to-the-convention-nationale/; http://abolition.nypl.org/images/african_resistance/8/114.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
San Diego State University

Diallo, Rokhaya (1978- )

Entry Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
Born in Paris, France in April 1978, from Senegalese parents, Rokhaya Diallo most famous as a French feminist and antiracist activist. She is also a journalist for radio and TV.

First educated in the public schools of Paris, she moved at 11 with her parents (her father was a mechanic and her mother was a sewing instructor) to the Paris suburb of La Courneuve.  She was an exceptional student and graduated in 2002 from Pantheon – Sorbonne university with a master degree in international law and a commerce school diploma.  

After graduation Diallo took a position with IBM in Paris.  She soon quit her position, however, and returned to the university where she earned another master’s degree in TV and radio distribution and marketing.  After graduation she soon found a job working for Canal + TV station and RTL radio.  Today she works as an animator in French media.
Sources: 
Rockhaya Diallo, Racisme: Mode d’Emploi (Paris: Larousse. 2011); Rockhaya Diallo, La France est une et muliculturelle, (Paris: Fayard, 2012); Rockhaya Diallo, Comment parler de racism aux enfants (Paris: Le Baron Perché, 2013); Rockhaya Diallo Moi, Raciste? Jamais! Scènes de racism ordinaire (Paris: Flammarion, 2015).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Paris

The Almoravids/al-Murabitun (1040CE–1147CE)

Entry Type: 
Organizations
History Type: 
Global African History
The Almoravid Empire
"Image Ownership: Public Domain"
The Almoravids, or al-Murabitun as they called themselves, were an Islamic Berber dynasty that established an empire in Morocco and eventually took it over a wide region of Northwest Africa including modern Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, and part of Algeria.  The emprire stretched as far south as modern Senegal and as far north as the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal). The Almoravids aimed to spread the Islamic traditions throughout Northern Africa and Al-Andalus which was Islamic Spain at the time.

The dynasty was initiated and first led by Yahya ibn Ibrahim from the Lamtuna tribe of the Sahara in 1040. Upon his return from a pilgrimage to Mecca with a missionary called Abdallah ibn Yasin, where he learned about the orthodox traditions of Islam (Sunnah), Yahya tried to preach that knowledge to his tribe but was opposed and forced to leave to the Saharan regions where he began to gather followers.

Sources: 
Department of Islamic Art, “The Art of the Almoravid and Almohad Periods (ca. 1062–1269),” in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000); http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/almo/hd_almo.htm; Ronald A. Messier, The Almoravids and the Meanings of Jihad (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010).
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle

Bashen, Janet Emerson (1957- )

Vignette Type: 
People
History Type: 
African American History
"Image Ownership: Pubic Domain"
Janet Emerson Bashen is the founder and CEO of the Bashen Corporation, a private consulting group that investigates Equal Employment Opportunity complaints under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. She is the first African American woman in the United States to hold a software patent.

Born Janet Emerson in Mansfield, Ohio on February 12, 1957, Bashen grew up in a working class family. Early in her childhood, her family moved to Huntsville, Alabama, where her father worked as a garbage collector and her mother was the city’s first black woman emergency room nurse.

Bashen attended Alabama A&M until she married and relocated to Houston, Texas. She finished her degree in legal studies and government at the University of Houston and then continued her education at Rice University’s Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Administration. She also attended Harvard University’s “Women and Power: Leadership in a New World.”
Sources: 
“Janet Emerson Bashen,” The Bashen Corporation, http://www.bashencorp.com/founder/; “Bashen Corporation: Corporation History and Accolades,” The Bashen Corporation, 2016, http://www.bashencorp.com/corporate-history-and-accolades/; Mary Bellis, “Janet Emerson Bashen,” About.com: Money, http://inventors.about.com/od/blackinventors/a/bashen.htm; Samara Lynn, “How Janet Bashen Became a Software Pioneer,” Black Enterprise, Feb. 9, 2016, http://www.blackenterprise.com/technology/how-janet-bashen-became-a-software-pioneer/.
Contributor: 
Affiliation: 
University of Washington, Seattle
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