1901—The last African American congressman elected in the 19th Century, George H. White, Republican of North Carolina, leaves office. No African American will serve in Congress for the next 28 years.
On October 11, when Bert Williams and George Walker record their music for the Victor Talking Machine Company, they become the first African American recording artists.
On October 16, only one month after becoming President, Theodore Roosevelt holds an afternoon meeting at the White House with Booker T. Washington. At the end of the meeting the President informally invites Washington to remain for dinner, making the Tuskegee educator the first black American to dine at the White House with a president. Roosevelt’s casual act generates a national furor.
1902—In May jockey Jimmy Winkfield wins the Kentucky Derby in an era when African American jockeys dominate the sport.
1903—W.E.B. Du Bois's The Souls of Black Folk is published on April 27. In it Du Bois rejects the gradualism of Booker T. Washington, calling for agitation on behalf of African American rights.
Maggie Lena Walker founds St. Luke’s Penny Savings Bank in Richmond, Virginia.
Meta Vaux Warrick, an African American sculptor, exhibits her work at the Paris Salon, Paris France.
1904—Educator Mary McLeod Bethune founds a college in Daytona Beach, Florida that today is known as Bethune-Cookman College.
Sigma Pi Beta (the Boule) is founded in Philadelphia by four wealthy African American college graduates.
Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller, who trains at the Royal Psychiatric Hospital at the University of Munich with Dr. Alois Alzheimer, becomes a widely published pioneer in Alzheimer’s disease research. Fuller also becomes the nation’s first black psychiatrist.
1905—The Chicago Defender is founded by Robert Abbott on May 5.
The Niagara Movement is created on July 11-13, by African American intellectuals and activists, led by W.E.B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter.
Nashville African Americans boycott streetcars to protest racial segregation.
1906—The Azusa Street Revival begins in the former African Methodist Episcopal Church building at 312 Azusa Street in April. The revival, led by black evangelist William J. Seymour, is considered the beginning of the worldwide Pentecostal Movement.
On August 13 in Brownsville, Texas, approximately a dozen black troops riot against segregation and in the process kill a local citizen. When the identity of the killer cannot be determined, President Theodore Roosevelt discharges three companies of black soldiers on November 6.
A race riot in Atlanta on September 22-24 produces twelve deaths; ten blacks and two whites.
On December 4, seven students at Cornell University form Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, the first college fraternity for black men.
1907—Alain Locke of Philadelphia, a Harvard graduate, becomes the first African American Rhodes Scholar.
The Pittsburgh Courier is established by Edwin Harleston, a security guard and aspiring writer. Three years later attorney Robert Vann takes control of the paper as its editor-publisher.
Madame C.J. Walker of Denver develops and markets her hair straightening method and creates one of the most successful cosmetics firms in the nation.
1908—On January 15, Alpha Kappa Alpha, the first black sorority, is founded on the campus of Howard University.
John Baxter “Doc” Taylor of the University of Pennsylvania becomes the first African American to win an Olympic Gold Medal. His event is the 4/400-meter medley at the London Games.
On August 14, a two day race riot breaks out in Springfield, Illinois, the home town of Abraham Lincoln. Two blacks and four whites are killed. This is the first major riot in a Northern city in nearly half a century.
On December 26, Jack Johnson defeats Canadian Tommy Burns in Sydney, Australia to become the first African American heavyweight boxing champion of the world.
1909—The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is formed on February 12 in New York City, partly in response to the Springfield Riot.
On April 6, Admiral Robert E. Peary and African American Matthew Henson, accompanied by four Eskimos, become the first men known to have reached the North Pole.
On December 4, the New York Amsterdam News begins publication.
1910—Census of 1910
U.S. population: 93,402,151
Black population: 9,827,763 (10.7%)
The National Urban League is founded in New York City on September 29. The League is organized to help African Americans secure employment and to adjust to urban life.
The first issue of Crisis, the official publication of the NAACP, appears on November 1. W.E.B. Du Bois is the first editor.
On December 19, the City Council of Baltimore approves an ordinance segregating black and white neighborhoods. This ordinance is followed by similar statutes in Dallas, Texas, Greensboro, North Carolina, Louisville, Kentucky, Norfolk, Virginia, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Richmond, Virginia, Roanoke, Virginia, and St. Louis, Missouri.
1911—Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity is founded at Indiana University on January 5.
Omega Psi Phi Fraternity is founded at Howard University on November 17.
1913—The Jubilee year, the 50th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation, is celebrated throughout the nation over the entire year.
Delta Sigma Theta Sorority is founded at Howard University on January 13.
On April 11, the Wilson administration initiates the racial segregation of work places, rest rooms and lunch rooms in all federal offices across the nation.
Bert Williams plays the lead role in Darktown Jubilee, making him the first African American actor to star in a motion picture.
1914—Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity is founded at Howard University on January 9.
The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) is founded in Kingston, Jamaica by Marcus and Amy Jacques Garvey.
Cleveland inventor Garrett Morgan patents a gas mask called the Safety Hood and Smoke Protector. The mask, initially used to rescue trapped miners, is eventually adopted by the U.S. Army.
On August 1, World War I began in Europe.
African American pilot Eugene J. Bullard volunteers to serve with the French Air Force in World War I. He is the first black pilot to see combat in that conflict.
1915—The Great Migration of African Americans from the South to Northern cities begins.
On June 21, the Oklahoma Grandfather Clause is overturned in Guinn v. United States.
On July 28, the United States begins a 19 year occupation of Haiti, the longest in U.S. history.
In September, Carter G. Woodson founds the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History in Chicago. The association produces The Journal of Negro History the following year.
1916—Marcus Garvey founds the New York Division of the Universal Negro Improvement Association with sixteen members. Four years later the UNIA holds its national convention in Harlem. At its height the organization claims nearly two million members.
In March the Tenth Cavalry is one of two cavalry units under the command of General John J. Pershing given the assignment to capture Mexican Revolutionary leader Pancho Villa. The Seventh Cavalry is the other. They are unsuccessful.
On July 25, Garrett Morgan uses his newly invented gas mask to rescue 32 men trapped after an explosion in a tunnel 250 feet beneath Lake Erie.
1917—The United States enters World War I on April 6. Some 370,000 African-Americans join the armed forces with more than half serving in the French war zone. Over 1,000 black officers command these troops. The French government awards the Croix de Guerre to 107 African American soldiers.
The East St. Louis Race Riot begins on July 1 and continues to July 3. Forty people are killed, hundreds more injured, and 6,000 driven from their homes.
Nearly 10,000 African Americans and their supporters march down Manhattan's Fifth Avenue on July 28 as part of a “silent parade,” an NAACP-organized protest against lynchings, race riots, and the denial of rights. This is the first major civil rights demonstration in the 20th Century.
On August 23, a riot erupts in Houston between black soldiers and white citizens; two blacks and 11 whites are killed. Twenty-nine black soldiers are executed for participation in the riot.
In August, A. Philip Randolph and Chandler Owen found The Messenger, a black socialist magazine, in New York City.
On November 5, the Supreme Court in Buchanan v. Warley strikes down the Louisville, Kentucky ordinance mandating segregated neighborhoods.
1918—On July 25-28, a race riot in Chester, Pennsylvania claims five lives, three blacks and two whites.
On July 26-29, in nearby Philadelphia, another race riot breaks out killing four, three blacks and one white.
The Armistice on November 11 ends World War I. However, the northern migration of African Americans continues. By 1930 there were 1,035,000 more black Americans in the North than in 1910.
1919—The Ku Klux Klan is revived in 1915 at Stone Mountain, Georgia, and by the beginning of 1919 operates in 27 states. Eighty-three African Americans are lynched during the year, among them a number of returning soldiers still in uniform.
The West Virginia State Supreme Court rules that an African American is denied equal protection under the law if his jury has no black members.
The Second Pan African Conference, led by W.E. B. DuBois, meets in Paris in February partly to help influence the post war Versailles Peace Conference.
The Associated Negro Press is established by Claude A. Barnett on March 2.
The twenty five race riots that take place throughout the nation prompt the term, “Red Summer.” The largest clashes take place on May 10 in Charleston, South Carolina, July 13 in Longview, Texas, July 19-23 in Washington, D. C, July 27-Aug. 1 in Chicago, September 28 in Omaha, and October 1-3 in Elaine, Arkansas.
Claude McKay publishes “If We Must Die,” considered one of the first major examples of Harlem Renaissance writing.
Father Divine founds the Peace Mission Movement at his home in Sayville, New York.
South Dakota resident Oscar Micheaux’s releases his first film, The Homesteader, in Chicago. Over the next four decades Micheaux will produce and direct 24 silent films and 19 sound films, making him the most prolific black filmmaker of the 20th Century.
1920 - Census of 1920
U.S. population: 105,710,620
Black population: 10,463,131 (9.9%)
The decade of the 1920s witnesses the Harlem Renaissance, a remarkable period of creativity for black writers, poets, and artists, including among others Claude McKay, Jean Toomer, Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston.
On January 16, Zeta Phi Beta Sorority is founded at Howard University.
Andrew “Rube” Foster leads the effort to establish the Negro National (Baseball) League on February 14 in Kansas City. Eight teams are part of the league.
On August 26, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution is ratified giving all women the right to vote. Nonetheless, African American women, like African American men, are denied the franchise in most Southern states.
1921—On May 31-June 1, at least 60 blacks and 21 whites are killed in a race riot in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The violence destroys a thriving African American neighborhood and business district called Deep Greenwood.
In June Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander of the University of Pennsylvania, Eva B. Dykes of Radcliff and Georgiana R. Simpson of the University of Chicago become the first African American women to earn Ph.D. degrees.
Bessie Coleman, the first black female pilot, also becomes the first woman to receive an international pilot’s license when she graduates from the Federation Aeronautique International in France.
Harry Pace forms Black Swan Phonograph Corporation, the first African American-owned record company in Harlem. His artists will include Mamie and Bessie Smith.
One of the earliest exhibitions of work by African American artists, including Henry Ossawa Tanner and Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, is held at the 135th Street branch of the New York Public Library.
1922—Shuffle Along by Noble Sissle and Eubie Blake opens on Broadway on May 23. This is the first major play of the Harlem Renaissance.
In September William Leo Hansberry of Howard University teaches the first course in African history and civilization at an American university.
Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority is founded on November 12 in Indianapolis, Indiana.
The Harmon Foundation is established in New York City to promote African American participation in the fine arts.
1923—On January 4, the small, predominately black town of Rosewood, Florida is destroyed by a mob of white residents from nearby communities.
Marcus Garvey is imprisoned for mail fraud. He is sent to the Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta in 1925.
In September, the Cotton Club opens in Harlem.
Bessie Smith signs with Columbia Records to produce “race” records. Two years later she records St. Louis Blues with Louis Armstrong.
On November 20, Garrett T. Morgan patents the traffic signal.
The National Urban League publishes it first issue of Opportunity, A Journal of Negro Life. The magazine, edited by Charles S. Johnson, quickly becomes a forum for artists and authors of the Harlem Renaissance.
1924—Eugene O’Neill’s play The Emperor Jones opens in London with Paul Robeson in the title role.
Photographer James Vander Zee begins his career by capturing images of Marcus Garvey and the UNIA.
1925—Alain Locke’s The New Negro is published in New York City.
The National Bar Association, an organization of black attorneys, is established on August 1 in Des Moines, Iowa.
On August 2, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Maids is organized with A. Philip Randolph as its first president.
On September 9, Ossian Sweet, a Detroit physician, is arrested for murder after he and his family kill a member of a white mob while defending their home. The Sweet family is represented at their trial by Clarence Darrow and acquitted of the charge.
1926—Carter G. Woodson establishes Negro History Week in February between the Lincoln and Washington Birthdays.
Dr. Mordecai Johnson becomes the first African American president of Howard University in September.
The Carnegie Corporation purchases Arturo Schomburg’s collection of books and artifacts on African American life. The collection becomes the basis for the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in New York City.
1927—New York businessman Abe Saperstein forms the Harlem Globetrotters basketball team on January 30.
On December 2, Marcus Garvey is deported from the United States.
1928—On November 6, Oscar DePriest, a Republican, is elected to Congress from Chicago’s South Side. He is the first African American to represent a northern, urban district.
The Atlanta Daily World begins publication in November.
1929—Fats Waller’s Ain’t Misbehavin opens on Broadway.
1930—Census of 1930
U.S. population: 122,775,046
Black population: 11,891,143 (9.7%)
James V. Herring establishes the Howard University Gallery of Art, the first gallery in the United States directed and controlled by African Americans. It is also one of the earliest galleries to highlight African American art.
Wallace Fard Muhammad founds Black Muslim movement in Detroit in 1930. Four years later Elijah Muhammad assumes control of the movement and transfers the headquarters to Chicago.
1931—Walter White is named NAACP executive secretary. Soon afterwards the NAACP mounts a new strategy primarily using lawsuits to end racial discrimination.
The Scottsboro Boys are arrested in Alabama. Their trial begins on April 6.
1932—The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment begins under the direction of the U.S. Public Health Service. The experiment ends in 1972.
Gospel Composer Thomas Dorsey writes “Take My Hand, Precious Lord.”
Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected president of the United States in November.
The Los Angeles Sentinel is founded by Leon H. Washington.
Dudley Murphy releases the film The Emperor Jones starring Paul Robeson.
1933—On January 31, Etta Moten becomes the first African American entertainer to perform at the White House. She appears before President Herbert Hoover and his family in the final weeks of his administration.
1934—W.E.B. Du Bois resigns from the NAACP in a dispute over the strategy of the organization in its campaign against racial discrimination. Roy Wilkins becomes the new editor of Crisis magazine.
The Southern Tenant Farmers Union is organized by the Socialist Party.
Zora Neale Hurston’s first novel, Jonah’s Gourd Vine, is published.
The Apollo Theater opens in Harlem.
1935—March 20, a one day riot erupts in Harlem leaving two people dead.
On April 1, the U.S. Supreme Court rules in Norris v. Alabama that a defendant has a right to trial by a jury of his or her peers.
The Michigan Chronicle is founded in Detroit by Louis E. Martin.
On October 3, Italy invades Ethiopia.
On November 5, the Maryland Supreme Court rules in Murray v. Pearson that the University of Maryland must admit African Americans to its law school or establish a separate school for blacks. The University of Maryland chooses to admit its first black students.
On December 24, Mary McLeod Bethune calls together the leaders of 28 national women’s organizations to Washington, D.C. to found the National Council of Negro Women.
1936—The first meeting of the National Negro Congress takes place in Chicago on February 14, 1936. Nearly 600 black organizations are represented.
On June 24, Mary McLeod Bethune is named Director of the Division of Negro Affairs, the National Youth Administration. She is the highest ranking black official in the Roosevelt Administration and leads the Black Cabinet. She is also the first black woman to receive a presidential appointment.
Track star Jesse Owens wins four gold medals at the Berlin Olympics between August 3 and August 9.
Dr. William Augustus Hinton’s book, Syphilis and Its Treatment, is the first published medical textbook written by an African American.
1937—William H. Hastie, former advisor to President Franklin Roosevelt, is confirmed on March 26 as the first black federal judge after his appointment by Roosevelt to the federal bench in the Virgin Islands.
The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Maids is recognized by the Pullman Company.
Approximately 80 African Americans are among the 3,000 U.S. volunteers who fight in the Spanish Civil War. One of them, Oliver Law of Chicago, commands the Lincoln Battalion. Law is killed in battle on July 9.
On June 22, boxer Joe Louis wins the heavyweight championship in a bout with James J. Braddock in Chicago.
In October, Katherine Dunham forms the Negro Dance Group, a company of black artists dedicated to presenting aspects of African American and African-Caribbean Dance. The company eventually becomes the Katherine Dunham Group.
1938—On June 22, Joe Louis beats Max Schmeling in a rematch of his 1936 defeat by the German boxer.
Jacob Lawrence holds his first solo exhibition at the Harlem YMCA and completes his Toussaint L’Overture series.
In November Crystal Bird Fauset of Philadelphia becomes the first African American woman elected to a state legislature when she is chosen to serve in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives.
On December 12, the U.S. Supreme Court in Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada rules that a state that provides in-state education for whites must provide comparable in-state education for blacks.
1939—Popular contralto Marian Anderson sings at Lincoln Memorial before 75,000 people on Easter Sunday after the Daughters of the American Revolution refuse to allow her to perform at Constitution Hall.
Bill “Bojangles” Robinson organizes the Black Actors Guild.
World War II begins in Europe on September 1 when Germany invades Poland
Jane M Bolin becomes the first African American woman judge in the United States when she is appointed to the domestic relations court of New York City.
1940—Census of 1940
U.S. population 131,669,275
Black population: 12,865,518 (9.8%)
On February 29, Hattie McDaniel receives an Oscar for Best Supporting Actress in her role in Gone With the Wind. She becomes the first black actor to win an academy award.
Richard Wright publishes his first novel, Native Son.
Dr. Charles R. Drew presents his thesis, “Banked Blood” at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York. The thesis includes his research which discovers that plasma can replace whole blood transfusions.
In October, Benjamin Oliver Davis is named the first African American general in the regular army.
1941—Mary Lucinda Dawson founds the National Negro Opera Company.
The U.S. Army creates the Tuskegee Air Squadron.
On June 25, Executive Order 8802 desegregates war production plants and creates the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC).
On December 8, the United States enters World War II following the attack on Pearl Harbor. Dorie Miller is awarded the Navy Cross for his heroism during that battle.
1941-1945—The desperate need for factory labor to build the war machine needed to win World War II leads to an unprecedented migration of African Americans from the South to the North and West. This migration transforms American politics as blacks increasingly vote in their new homes and put pressure on Congress to protect civil rights throughout the nation. Their activism lays much of the foundation for the national Civil Rights Movement a decade later.
1942—Margaret Walker publishes For My People.
The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is founded in Chicago by James Farmer, Jr., George Houser and Bernice Fisher.
The U.S. Marine Corps accepts African American men for the first time.
Charity Adams becomes the first black woman commissioned officer in the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAACs).
1943—The Naval Academy at Annapolis and other naval officer schools accept African American men for the first time.
The Detroit Race Riot, June 20-21, claims 34 lives including 25 African Americans. Other riots occur in Harlem, Mobile, Alabama and Beaumont, Texas.
The first black cadets graduate from the Army Flight School at Tuskegee Institute, Alabama.
By summer, fourteen thousand African American soldiers of the 93rd Infantry Division and the 32nd and 33rd companies of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (approximately 300 women) are stationed in the Arizona desert at Fort Huachuca for training. They are the largest concentration of black military personnel in the history of the nation.
Two American Navy Destroyer ships, the USS Mason and the submarine chaser PC1264 are staffed entirely by African American crews.
The black 99th Pursuit Squadron (Tuskegee Airmen) flies its first combat mission in Italy.
1944—On April 3, the U.S. Supreme Court in Smith v. Allwright declares white only political primaries unconstitutional.
Frederick Douglass Patterson establishes the United Negro College Fund on April 25 to help support black colleges and black students.
Rev. Adam Clayton Powell, pastor of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in New York, is elected to Congress from Harlem in November.
Gunnar Myrdal publishes An American Dilemma.
1945—President Franklin Delano Roosevelt dies on April 12.
The United Nations is founded at San Francisco on April 25.
On May 8, Germany surrenders on VE day.
Colonel Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. is named commander of Goodman Field, Kentucky. He is the first African American to command a military base.
Japan surrenders on VJ day ending World War II on September 2. By the end of the war one million African American men and women have served in the U.S. military.
Nat King Cole becomes the first African American to have a radio variety show. The show airs on NBC.
Ebony magazine publishes its first issue on November 1.
1946—Dr. Charles S. Johnson becomes the first African American president of Fisk University.
The U.S. Supreme Court in Morgan v. Virginia rules that segregation in interstate bus travel is unconstitutional.
1947—On April 10, Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers becomes the first African American to play major league baseball in the 20th Century.
The NAACP petition on racism "An Appeal to the World” is presented to the United Nations.
1948—On July 26, President Harry Truman issues Executive Order 9981 directing the desegregation of the armed forces.
Alice Coachman becomes the first African American woman to win an Olympic Gold Medal. She wins the high jump competition in the London Olympics.
On October 1, the California Supreme Court voids the law banning interracial marriages in the state.
1949—In June Wesley Brown becomes the first African American to graduate from the Naval Academy at Annapolis.
Businessman Jesse Blanton, Sr. establishes WERD-AM, the first black owned radio station. It begins broadcasting in Atlanta on October 3.
U.S. population: 150,697,361
Black population: 15,044,937 (10%)
On May 1, Gwendolyn Brooks of Chicago becomes the first African American to receive a Pulitzer Prize. She wins the prize in Poetry.
On September 22, Ralph Bunche becomes the first African American recipient of a Nobel Peace Prize for his mediation of a settlement between Arabs and Israelis in the 1947-48 Mideast Crisis.
1951—On May 24, the U.S. Supreme Court rules racial segregation in District of Columbia restaurants is unconstitutional.
On May 24, a mob of 3,500 whites attempt to prevent a black family from moving into a Cicero, Illinois apartment. Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson calls out the Illinois National Guard to protect the family and restore order.
Harry T. Moore, a Florida NAACP official, is killed by a bomb in Mims, Florida, on December 25.
1952—Tuskegee Institute reported no lynchings in the United States for the first time in 71 years of tabulation.
Col. Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. is appointed commander of the 51st Fighter Interceptor Wing in Korea.
Ralph Ellison publishes Invisible Man.
1953—On June 19, Baton Rouge, Louisiana African Americans begin a boycott of their city’s segregated municipal bus line.
On December 31, Hulan Jack becomes the first African American borough president of Manhattan. At the time he is the highest ranking black elected official in the nation.
1954—On May 17, the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education declares segregation in all public schools in the United States unconstitutional, nullifying the earlier judicial doctrine of "separate but equal."
On October 27, Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. becomes the first black Air Force General. He also becomes the first African American to command an airbase.
Malcolm X becomes Minister of the Nation of Islam’s Harlem Temple 7.
1955—Fourteen year old Chicago resident Emmett Till is lynched in Money, Mississippi on August 28.
Chuck Berry, an early breakthrough rock and roll artist, records “Maybellene”
Rosa Parks refuses to relinquish her bus seat to a white man on December 1, initiating the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Soon afterwards Dr. Martin Luther King becomes the leader of the Boycott.
1956—Autherine Lucy is admitted to the University of Alabama on February 3. She is suspended on February 7 after a riot ensues at the University to protest her presence. Lucy is expelled on February 29.
On November 11, Nat King Cole becomes the first African American to host a prime time variety show on national television. He appears on NBC.
Harry Belafonte's Calypso is the first album in history to sell more than one million copies.
On November 13, the U.S. Supreme Court in Gayle v. Browder bans segregation in intrastate travel, effectively giving a victory to those supporting the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
1957—Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first legislation protecting black rights since Reconstruction. The act establishes the Civil Rights section of the Justice Department and empowers federal prosecutors to obtain court injunctions against interference with the right to vote. It also creates the federal Civil Rights Commission with the authority to investigate discriminatory conditions and recommend corrective measures.
Dorothy Irene Height is appointed president of the National Council of Negro Women, a position she holds for 41 years. She later launches a crusade for justice for black women and works to strengthen the black family.
On July 6, Althea Gibson becomes the first African American to win the Women’s Singles Division of the British Tennis Championship at Wimbledon.
In September President Dwight D. Eisenhower sends federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to ensure the enforcement of a Federal court order to desegregate Central High School and to protect nine African American students enrolled as part of the order. The troops remain at the high school until the end of the school year.
1958—On January 12, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is organized in Atlanta with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as its first President.
The Alvin Ailey Dance Theater is formed in New York.
Louis E. Lomax becomes the first African American newscaster. He works for WNTA-TV in New York City.
1959—On January 12, Berry Gordy, Jr. founds Motown Records in Detroit.
Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun opens on March 11 with Sidney Poitier in the starring role. It is the first play by an African American woman to be produced on Broadway.
On April 26, Mack Charles Parker is lynched near Poplarville, Mississippi.
1960—Census of 1960
U.S. population: 179,323,175
Black population: 18,871,831 (10.6%)
On February 1, 1960, four students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College in Greensboro begin a sit-in at Woolworth’s Drug Store to protest company policy which bans African Americans from sitting at its counters.
On April 15, 150 black and white students gather at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina to form the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
The Civil Rights Act of 1960 is signed into law by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on May 6. The Act established federal inspection of local voter registration rolls and introduces penalties for anyone who obstructs a citizen’s attempt to register to vote or to cast a ballot.
Track star Wilma Rudolph of Tennessee State University is the first woman to win three gold medals at the Olympic Games which are held that year in Rome.
On Nov. 8, Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy defeats Vice President Richard Nixon in one of the closest elections in history. Many observers credit African American voters with Kennedy’s narrow margin of victory.
1961—The Congress of Racial Equality organizes Freedom Rides through the Deep South.
Riots on the University of Georgia campus in September fail to prevent the enrollment of the institution’s first two African American students, Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter (Gault).
1962—Ernie Davis, a running back at Syracuse University, becomes the first African American athlete to receive football’s Heisman Trophy.
On October 1, James Meredith becomes the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi. On the day he enters the University, he is escorted by U.S. marshals after federal troops are sent in to suppress rioting and maintain order.
1963—Martin Luther King writes his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” on April 16.
On May 3, Birmingham Police use dogs and fire hoses to attack civil rights demonstrators.
Despite Governor George Wallace’s vow to “block the schoolhouse door” to prevent their enrollment on June 11, Vivian Malone and James Hood register for classes at the University of Alabama. They are the first African American students to attend the university.
James Baldwin publishes The Fire Next Time.
On June 12, Mississippi NAACP Field Secretary Medgar Evers is assassinated outside his home in Jackson.
Over 200,000 people gather in Washington, D.C. on August 28 as part of the March on Washington, an unprecedented demonstration demanding civil rights and equal opportunity for African Americans. Dr. Martin Luther King delivers his “I Have a Dream Speech” here.
On September 15, the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church is bombed in Birmingham, Alabama, killing four girls, Addie Mae Collins, Denise McNair, Carole Robertson and Cynthia Wesley, ages 11-14.
President John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas on November 22.
1964—On January 8, President Lyndon Johnson in his first State of the Union Address “declares unconditional war on poverty in America,” thus initiating a broad array of government programs designed to assist the poorest citizens of the nation including a disproportionate number of African Americans.
Sidney Poitier wins the Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance in the film Lilies of the Field.
SNCC organizes the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project.
On February 25, Cassius Clay (later Muhammad Ali) wins the first of three world heavyweight championships in a bout with Sonny Liston in Miami, Florida.
On March 12, Malcolm X announces his break with the Nation of Islam and his founding of the Muslim Mosque in Harlem.
On June 21 civil rights workers James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner are abducted and killed by terrorists in Mississippi.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is passed by Congress on July 2. The act bans discrimination in all public accommodations and by employers. It also establishes the Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC) to monitor compliance with the law.
The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) delegation led by Fannie Lou Hamer is denied seating at the Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City in August.
On August 20, President Lyndon Johnson signs the Economic Opportunity Act, initiating the federally-sponsored War on Poverty. The act includes Head Start, Upward Bound and Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA).
On December 10, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. receives the Nobel Peace Prize in Stockholm, Sweden.
1965—Malcolm X is assassinated at the Audubon Ballroom in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan, just north of Harlem on February 21.
On March 7, six hundred Alabama civil rights activists stage a Selma to Montgomery protest march to draw attention to the continued denial of black voting rights in the state. The marchers are confronted by Alabama State Troopers whose attack on them at the Edmund Pettus Bridge is carried on national television. On March 21, Rev. Martin Luther King leads a five-day, 54 mile march retracing the route of the original activists. The 3,300 marchers at the beginning of the trek eventually grow to 25,000 when they reach the Alabama capitol on March 25. After the protest march President Lyndon Johnson proposes the Voting Rights Act to guarantee black voting throughout the South.
In March, the White House releases “The Negro Family: The Case for National Action,” popularly known as the Moynihan Report.
On June 4, President Lyndon Johnson first uses the term “affirmative action” in a speech at Howard University.
Alex Haley publishes the Autobiography of Malcolm X.
The Voting Rights Act is signed into law on August 6.
The Watts Uprising occurs on August 11-16. Thirty four people are killed and one thousand are injured in the five day confrontation.
Maulana Karenga founds the black nationalist organization Us in Los Angeles following the Watts Uprising.
1966—On January 13, Robert Weaver, President Lyndon Baines Johnson’s nominee to head the newly created Department of Housing and Urban Development, is confirmed for the post by the U.S. Senate. Weaver becomes the first African American to hold a cabinet post.
On January 25th Constance Baker Motley is appointed by President Lyndon Baines Johnson to the Federal Bench in New York City. She becomes the first African American woman elevated to a Federal judgeship.
In May, Stokely Carmichael becomes chairman of SNCC and embraces the concept of “black power.”
On June 5, James Meredith begins a solitary March Against Fear for 220 miles from Memphis to Jackson, Mississippi to protest racial discrimination. Soon after crossing into Mississippi Meredith is shot by a sniper. Civil Rights leaders including Martin Luther King (SCLC), Floyd McKissick (CORE) and Stokely Carmichael (SNCC) vow to continue the march which eventually reaches Jackson. While in Greenwood, Carmichael gives his first “Black Power” speech on June 26.
On October 15, The Black Panther Party is formed in Oakland, California by Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton.
Andrew F. Brimmer is appointed by President Lyndon Johnson to be the first African American to serve on the Federal Reserve Board.
James T. Whitehead, Jr., becomes the first African American to pilot a U-2 spy plane.
On November 8, Edward Brooke of Massachusetts becomes the first African American to be popularly elected to the U.S. Senate.
On November 8, Julian Bond wins a seat in the Georgia State Senate. However he is denied the seat by the Georgia Legislature because of his opposition to the Vietnam War. Bond is eventually seated after a bitter court battle.
Maulana Karenga creates the pan-African and African American holiday, Kwanzaa.
1967—On April 4, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence” at a meeting of Clergy and Laity Concerned at Riverside Church, New York City.
H. Rap Brown becomes chairman of SNCC on May 12.
On June 12, the U.S. Supreme Court in Loving v. Virginia strikes down state interracial marriage bans.
The six-day Newark Riot begins on July 12 and claims 23 dead, 725 injured and 1,500 arrested.
Thurgood Marshall takes his seat as the first African American Justice on the United States Supreme Court on July 13.
On July 23, Detroit erupts. Between July 23 and July 28, 43 are killed, 1,189 are injured and over 7,000 are arrested.
On November 13, Carl Stokes and Richard G. Hatcher are elected the first black mayors of Cleveland and Gary, Indiana, respectively.
1968—On February 8, three students at South Carolina State College in Orangeburg are killed by police in what will be known as the Orangeburg Massacre.
The Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, popularly known as the Kerner Report, is released in March.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4. In the wake of the assassination 125 cities in 29 states experience uprisings. By April 11, 46 people are killed and 35,000 are injured in these confrontations.
In April Congress enacts the Civil Rights Act of 1968 which outlaws discrimination in the sale and rental of housing.
New York Senator and Presidential Candidate Robert F. Kennedy is assassinated on June 5 in Los Angeles.
On June 19, the Poor People’s Campaign brings 50,000 demonstrators to Washington, D.C.
Arthur Ashe becomes the first African American to win the Men’s Singles competition in the U.S. Open.
San Francisco State University establishes the nation’s first Black Studies Program in September.
In November Shirley Chisholm of New York is the first black woman elected to the U.S. Congress.
1969—The Ford Foundation gives one million dollars to Morgan State University, Howard University, and Yale University to help prepare faculty members to teach courses in African American studies.
On May 5, Moneta Sleet, Jr. of Ebony magazine, becomes the first African American to win a Pulitzer Prize in Photography.
On September 22, the African American Studies Program begins offering courses at Harvard University.
Alfred Day Hershey, Ph.D. geneticist, becomes the first African American to share a Nobel Prize in Medicine when he is recognized for his work on the replication and genetic structure of viruses.
Robert Chrisman and Nathan Hare publish the first issue of The Black Scholar in November.
Howard N. Lee becomes the first African American mayor of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. At the time he is the first African American mayor of a predominately white Southern city.
On December 4, Chicago police kill Black Panther leaders Fred Hampton and Mark Clarke.
1970—Census of 1970
U.S. population: 204,765,770
Black population: 22,580,289 (11.1%)
Dr. Clifton Wharton, Jr., is named president of Michigan State University on January 2. He is the first African American to lead a major, predominately white university.
On February 18, Bobby Seale and six other six defendants (popularly known as the Chicago Seven) are acquitted of the charge of conspiring to disrupt the 1968 Democratic National Convention.
The first issue of Essence magazine appears in May.
On May 15, two students, Philip Lafayette Gibbs and James Earl Green, are killed by police in a confrontation with students at Jackson State University, Jackson, Mississippi.
On July 1, Kenneth Gibson becomes the first black mayor of an eastern city when he assumes the post in Newark, New Jersey.
The first issue of Black Enterprise magazine appears in August.
The San Rafael, California courthouse shooting on August 7 results in the death of Judge Harold Haley and three others including Jonathan Jackson, the younger brother of imprisoned Black Panther George Jackson. UCLA Philosophy Professor Angela Davis is implicated in the shooting and becomes the subject of a nationwide FBI-led search. Davis is captured and brought to trial. She is acquitted of all charges on June 4, 1972.
On October 12, Charles Gordone becomes the first African American to win a Pulitzer Prize in Drama for his play, No Place to Be Somebody.
The Joint Center for Political Studies is established in Washington, D.C.
1971—On January 12th the Congressional Black Caucus is formed in Washington, D.C.
In July Captain Samuel L. Gravely, Jr is promoted to Rear Admiral. He becomes the first African American to achieve Flag Rank in the U.S. Navy.
On September 9, nearly 1,200 inmates seize control of half of the New York State Prison at Attica. Four days later 29 inmates and ten hostages are killed when state troopers and correctional officers suppress the uprising.
On December 18, Rev. Jesse Jackson founds People United to Save Humanity (PUSH) in Chicago.
1972—On March 10-12 several thousand African Americans gather in Gary, Indiana, for the first National Black Political Convention.
Over the summer New York Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm makes an unsuccessful bid for the Democratic presidential nomination. She is the first African American to campaign for the nomination.
In November Barbara Jordan of Houston and Andrew Young of Atlanta become the first black Congressional representatives elected from the U.S. South since 1898.
The first Haitian “boat people” arrive in south Florida.
1973—On May 29, Thomas Bradley is elected the first black mayor of Los Angeles in the modern era. He is reelected four times and thus holds the mayor’s office for 20 years.
The National Black Feminist Organization is established by Elizabeth Holmes Norton.
Marion Wright Edelman creates the Children’s Defense Fund.
On October 16, Maynard H. Jackson, Jr. is elected the first black mayor of Atlanta.
On Nov. 6, Coleman Young is elected the first black mayor of Detroit.
1974—On April 8, Henry “Hank” Aaron hits his 715th home run to become the all-time leader in home runs in major league baseball.
On June 21, U.S. District Judge W. Arthur Garrity initiates a busing program, involving several thousand students, designed to desegregate the public schools of Boston.
The largest single gift to date from a black organization is the $132,000 given by the Links, Inc., to the United Negro College Fund on July 1.
On October 30, Muhammad Ali defeats George Foreman in Kinshasa, Zaire to regain the world heavyweight championship.
On November 5, George Brown and Mervyn Dymally are elected Lieutenant Governors of Colorado and California respectively. They are the first African Americans to hold these posts in the 20th century.
1975—The Morehouse School of Medicine (Atlanta) becomes the only black medical school established in the United States in the 20th Century. The first dean and president of Morehouse School of Medicine is Dr. Louis Sullivan who later becomes the U.S. Surgeon General.
Wallace D. Muhammad assumes control of the Nation of Islam after the death of his father, Elijah Muhammad. He changes the organization’s direction and its name to the World Community of al-Islam.
Arthur Ashe becomes the first African American to wins the British Men’s Singles at Wimbledon.
General Daniel “Chappie” James of the Air Force becomes the first African American four star general.
The first black owned television station, WGPR, begins broadcasting in Detroit.
On October 12, Frank Robinson becomes the first black Major League Baseball manager when he takes over the Cleveland Indians.
1976—The United States Naval Academy at Annapolis admits women for the first time in June. Janie L. Mines becomes the first African American women cadet to enter. She graduates in 1980.
College and university enrollment for African American students rises sharply from 282,000 in 1966 to 1,062,000 in 1976.
1977—In January, Patricia Harris is appointed by President Jimmy Carter to head Housing and Urban Development. She becomes the first African American woman to hold a cabinet position.
In January, Congressman Andrew Young is appointed by President Jimmy Carter to be U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. He is the first African American to hold that post.
The eighth and final night for the miniseries based on Alex Haley's Roots is shown on February 3. This final episode achieves the highest ratings to that point for a single television program.
On March 8, Henry L. Marsh III became the first African American mayor of Richmond, Virginia
In September, Randall Robinson founds TransAfrica, a lobbying group for Africa, in Washington, D.C.
1978—Minister Louis Farrakhan breaks with the World Community of al-Islam and becomes the leader of the revived Nation of Islam.
On June 28, the U.S. Supreme Court in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke narrowly uphold affirmative action as a legal strategy for addressing past discrimination.
On September 15, Muhammad Ali becomes the first boxer to win the heavyweight championship three times when he defeats Leon Spinks at the Superdome in New Orleans.
1979—The Sugar Hill Gang records “Rapper’s Delight” in Harlem.
Franklin Thomas is named president of the Ford Foundation. He is the first African American to head a major philanthropic foundation.
Frank E. Petersen, Jr. becomes the first African American to earn the rank of General in the United States Marines.
In September Hazel W. Johnson becomes the first African American woman to be promoted to the rank of General in the United States Army.
Richard Arrington, Jr .is elected the first African American mayor of Birmingham, Alabama.
The Nobel Prize in Economics goes to Sir Arthur Lewis of Princeton University. He is the first black person to win the award in a category other than peace.
1980—Census of 1980
U.S. population: 226,504,825
Black population: 26,482,349 (11.8%)
In January Willie Lewis Brown, Jr. becomes the first African American Speaker in a state legislature when he is selected for the post in the California Assembly. Brown holds the Speakership until 1995 when he is elected Mayor of San Francisco.
On May 17-18 rioting breaks out in Liberty City, Florida (near Miami) after police officers are acquitted for killing an unarmed black man. The riot which generates 15 deaths is the worst in the nation since Detroit in 1967.
Toni Cade Bambara’s The Salt Eaters wins the American Book Award.
Robert L. Johnson begins operation of Black Entertainment Television (BET) out of Washington, D.C.
1982—The struggle of Rev. Ben Chavis and his followers to block a toxic waste dump in Warren County, North Carolina launches a national campaign against environmental racism.
Bryant Gumbel is named anchor of The Today Show, becoming the first African American to hold the post on a major network.
1983—On April 12, Harold Washington is elected the first black mayor of Chicago.
On August 30, Guion (Guy) S. Bluford, Jr., a crew member on the Challenger, becomes the first African American astronaut to make a space flight.
Vanessa Williams becomes the first African American crowned Miss America on September 18 in Atlantic City. In July 1984 she relinquishes her crown when nude photos of her appear in Penthouse magazine.
On November 2, President Ronald Reagan signs a bill establishing January 20 as a federal holiday in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Alice Walker’s The Color Purple wins the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.
Harvey Bernard Gantt becomes the first African American mayor of Charlotte, North Carolina.
1984—On January 2, W. Wilson Goode becomes the first African American mayor of Philadelphia.
In January Rev. Jesse Jackson travels to Syria to negotiate the release of U.S. Air Force pilot Robert Goodman who had been shot down over that country. Jackson returns to the U.S. with the freed pilot.
Rev. Jesse Jackson wins approximately one fourth of the votes cast in the Democratic primaries and caucuses and about one eighth of the convention delegates in a losing bid for the Democratic presidential nomination.
In August Carl Lewis wins four Gold Medals at the Olympics in Los Angeles, matching the record set by Jesse Owens in 1936.
In September The Cosby Show makes its television debut. The show runs for eight seasons and will become the most successful series in television history featuring a mostly African American cast.
Russell Simmons forms Def Jam Records in Harlem.
1985—In May, Philadelphia’s African American mayor, Wilson Goode, orders the Philadelphia police to bomb the headquarters of MOVE, a local black nationalist organization. The bombing leaves 11 people dead and 250 homeless.
1986—On January 20, the first national Martin Luther King, Jr. holiday is celebrated.
On January 28, Dr. Ronald McNair and six other crew members die when the space shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after launch from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
The Oprah Winfrey Show becomes nationally syndicated.
Spike Lee releases his first feature film, She’s Gotta Have It, initiating a new wave of interest in black films and African American filmmakers.
1987—Rita Dove wins the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry.
On August 6, Reginald Lewis orchestrates the leveraged buyout of Beatrice Foods to become the first African American CEO of a billion dollar corporation.
Neurosurgeon Dr. Ben Carson makes medical history when he leads a seventy-member surgical team at Johns Hopkins Hospital in a 22 hour operation separating Siamese twins (the Binder twins) joined at the cranium.
On October 28, Brigadier General Fred A. Gordon is appointed Commandant of the Cadets at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.
On December 8, Kurt Lidell Schmoke became the first African American elected mayor of Baltimore by popular vote.
1988—In his second try for the Democratic Presidential nomination Jesse L. Jackson receives 1,218 delegate votes at the Democratic National Convention on July 20. The number needed for the nomination, which goes to Michael Dukakis, was 2,082.
In September, Temple University offers the first Ph.D. in African American Studies.
On November 4, Comedian Bill Cosby announces his gift of $20 million to Spelman College. This is the largest donation ever made by a black American to a college or university.
1989—On January 29, Barbara Harris is elected the first woman bishop of the Episcopal Church.
On February 7, Ronald H. Brown is elected chair of the Democratic National Committee, becoming the first African American to head one of the two major political parties.
In March Frederick Drew Gregory becomes the first African American to command a space shuttle when he leads the crew of the Discovery..
Houston, Texas Congressman George Thomas “Mickey” Leland is killed in a plane crash near Gambela, Ethiopia on August 7.
On August 10, General Colin L. Powell is named chair of the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff, the first African American to hold the post.
On November 7, L. Douglas Wilder wins the governorship of Virginia, making him the first African American to be popularly elected to that office. On the same day David Dinkins and Norm Rice are the first African Americans elected as mayors of New York and Seattle respectively.
1990—Census of 1990
U.S. population: 248,709,878
Black population: 29,986,060 (12%)
On February 11, Nelson Mandela, South African Black Nationalist, is freed after 27 years in prison.
August Wilson wins a Pulitzer Prize for the play The Piano Lesson.
In November Sharon Pratt Kelly is elected mayor of Washington, D.C. She becomes the first African American woman to lead a large American city.
1991—On January 15, Roland Burris becomes the first black attorney general of Illinois.
On March 3, Los Angeles police use force to arrest Rodney King after a San Fernando Valley traffic stop. The beating of King is captured on videotape and broadcast widely prompting, an investigation and subsequent trial of three officers.
On April 10, Emanuel Cleaver II is sworn in as the first African American mayor of Kansas City, Missouri.
On June 18, Wellington Webb becomes the first African American mayor of Denver, Colorado.
On October 23, Federal Judge Clarence Thomas, nominated by President George H.W. Bush, is confirmed by the U.S. Senate and takes his seat on the U.S. Supreme Court.
Julie Dash releases Daughters of the Dust, the first feature film by an African American woman.
1992—In March Willie W. Herenton was elected the first African American mayor of Memphis, Tennessee.
On April 29, a Simi Valley, California jury acquits the three officers accused of beating Rodney King. The verdict triggers a three day uprising in Los Angeles that results in over 50 people killed, over 2,000 injured and 8,000 arrested.
On September 12, Dr. Mae Carol Jemison becomes the first African American woman in space when she travels on board the space shuttle Endeavor.
On November 3, Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois becomes the first African American woman elected to the United States Senate.
1993—In April Freeman Robertson Bosley Jr. becomes the first African American mayor of St. Louis, Missouri.
M. Joycelyn Elders becomes the first African American and the first woman to be named United States Surgeon General on September 7.
On October 7, Toni Morrison becomes the first black American to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. The work honored is her novel Beloved.
1994—On June 12, O.J. Simpson’s former wife, Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman are found stabbed to death. O.J. Simpson emerges as the leading suspect and is subsequently arrested on June 17 after a two hour low speed pursuit of Simpson and his friend Al Cowlings that is seen on television by an estimated 95 million people.
1995—On October 3, after an eight month televised trial, O.J. Simpson is acquitted of the charges of murder in the deaths of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman.
On May 6, Ron Kirk won the mayoral race in Dallas, becoming the first African American mayor of the city.
The Million Man March organized by Minister Louis Farrakhan is held in Washington, D.C. on October 17.
Dr. Helene Doris Gayle becomes the first woman and the first African American Director of the National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control.
1996—Commerce Secretary Ron Brown is killed in a plane crash near Dubrovnik, Croatia on April 3.
On April 9, George Walker becomes the first African American to win a Pulitzer Prize for Music. The winning composition, “Lilies for Soprano or Tenor and Orchestra,” is based on a poem by Walt Whitman.
In May, President Bill Clinton signs into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act which replaces Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with state block grants. It also substantially cuts programs designed to help the poor.
On November 5, California voters pass Proposition 209 which outlaws affirmative action throughout the state.
1997—On April 13, golfer Tiger Woods wins the Master’s Tournament in Augusta, Georgia. At 21 he is the youngest golfer ever to win the title. He is also the first African American to hold the title.
In June, Harvey Johnson, Jr. was sworn in as the first black mayor of Jackson, Mississippi.
On October 25 African American women participate in the Million Woman March in Philadelphia, focusing on health care, education, and self-help.
In December, Lee Patrick Brown become Houston’s first African American mayor.
1998—On June 7, churchgoers discover the dismembered body of James Byrd, Jr., in Jasper, Texas. It is later determined that three white supremacists chained Byrd, who is black, to the back of a pick-up truck and dragged him to his death.
1999—On January 13, after thirteen seasons and six NBA championships, professional basketball star Michael Jordan retires from the game as a player.
On September 10, Serena Williams wins the U.S. Open Women’s Singles Tennis Championship.
2000—Census of 2000
U.S. population: 281,421,906
Black population: 34,658,190 (12.3%)
Rev. Vashti M. McKenzie becomes the first woman bishop of the African Methodist Zion Church.
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