O Clarim da Alvorada
Office of Clarim da Alvorada, Sao Paulo, 1932
Image Courtesy of the Taylor Collection
(or Clarim d’Alvorada
, the clarion of dawn) was a pioneer Afro
established in 1924 and was key in strengthening the incipient black culture movement in the country. Part of a larger black press movement in the city of São Paulo, from about 1915, beginning with the publication of O Menelick and continuing to 1963 when Correio d’Ebano closed its doors, O Clarim
helped to forge a greater sense of solidarity among Afro-Brazilians, thereby allowing the fight for fuller participation in society to reach a larger audience. In addition, organizational skills acquired with the establishment of the paper were fundamental for advancing other black movements in the country.
Afro-Brazilians were an important presence in the state of São Paulo’s economy as slaves in coffee plantations. Following the abolition of slavery in 1888, subsidized European
immigration proceeded in large numbers, leaving the freed slaves with few economic options. Concentrating in the city of São Paulo, Afro-Brazilians began organizing around Catholic Brotherhoods and other social organizations including samba groups and women’s clubs. Small newspapers advertised their activities. A larger, more critical press, however, emerged in the 1920s, together with a sentiment in the country that Brazil needed a new direction: a more urban, industrialized, and nationalistic one.
Co-founded by Jaime de Aguiar (young aspiring poet
) and José Correia Leite, both in their early twenties, and conceived initially as a literary publication, O Clarim
became a vehicle for social criticism and the fight for better living conditions for blacks in Brazil. Focusing on Afro-Brazilian history, its legacy to the country and black unity, the paper was instrumental in politicizing a young Afro-Brazilian middle class, thereby sowing the seeds for other political organizations to flourish (such as Palmares civic center). In the later 1930s, O Clarim
also discussed international relations, after the Brazilian visit of Robert Abbott
, publisher of the Chicago Defender
in 1923. Afro-Brazilians were also influenced by the ideas of Marcus Garvey
and the Universal Negro Improvement Association which by the late 1920s circulated more broadly in the country.
co-founder Leite in particular, always mindful of the importance of political mobilization, organized a Congress of Black Youth, seeking to further advance black unity. Even if the Congress was short-lived (1929-1930), the foundations planted by Clarim
enabled the formation, in 1931, of Frente Negra Brasileira, the first national Afro-Brazilian political organization and, later, a political party.
Kim D. Butler, “Up from Slavery: Afro-Brazilian Activism in São Paulo,
1888-1938,” in The Americas, v.49, n.2 (October 1992); Kimberly
Jones-de-Oliveira, “The Politics of Culture or the Culture of Politics:
Afro-Brazilian Mobilization, 1920-1968,” Journal of Third World
Studies, v. 20, part I (2003); Quintard Taylor, “Frente Negra
Brasileira: The Afro Brazilian Civil Rights Movement, 1924 1937,”
Umoja: A Scholarly Journal of Black Studies 2:1 (Spring, 1978); Pedro
de Souza Santos, “A Imprensa Negra em São Paulo no início do Século
Vinte,” in Revista Eletronica do Arquivo do Estado, 14 de Setembro de
2006 available at