BlackPast.org Facebook BlackPast.org Twitter

Donate to BlackPast.org BlackPast Blog
  • African American History
  • African American History in the West
  • Global African History
  • Perspectives

NOTE: BlackPast.org will not disclose, use, give or sell any of the requested information to third parties.

6 + 12 =
Solve this simple math problem and enter the result. E.g. for 1+3, enter 4.

Shop Amazon and help BlackPast.org

Blackpast.org in the Classroom

Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmad al- (1944 - )

Image Ownership: Public Domain
Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (or Umar Hassan Ahmad el-Bashir) became president of Sudan in 1993 but first gained military power in 1989 during an Islamist-backed coup. He was born in the northern Sudan village of Hosh Bonnaga in 1944. 

Bashir's military training began in 1960 when at the age of sixteen he joined the Sudanese army. Six years later he graduated from the Sudan Military Academy located near Khartoum.  Bashir was sent for duty in the Egyptian army during the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war.  After the war he steadily rose to prominence.  From 1989 to 1993 he served as the Sudanese minister of defense.

In 1989, Bashir led his troops in overthrowing Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi who was on the verge of signing a peace treaty with the Sudan People's Liberation Movement.  The peace treaty would have allowed southern Sudan to be controlled by secular laws instead of the Sharia law that Bashir and other Muslim military officers demanded.  After the successful military coup, Bashir was appointed to lead the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC).  As head of the council he dissolved political parties and dismissed all other state governing bodies.

In 1993, Bashir became president of Sudan and appointed Hasan al-Turabi, a radical Islamist, as his vice president.  Together, Bashir and Turabi made Sharia law the only legal system in Sudan.  They also intensified the military campaign to defeat the Sudan People's Liberation Movement in what was called the Second Sudanese Civil War, beginning in 1983 and lasting 22 years.

As the southern Civil War wound down, Bashir turned his attention to the Darfur region in western Sudan.  In 2003 he began a campaign to remove the indigenous people from the region partly because of their earlier support of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement.  Bashir and the government-sponsored militia group, Janjaweed, were accused of using rape, murder, and torture against non-Arabs in Darfur. During the two-year conflict, an estimated 500,000 people were killed, over 2,000 villages were burned, and 2.5 million of the nation's 40 million people were forced to flee to refugee camps both in Sudan and neighboring Chad.

Because of the scale of what was increasingly called the Darfur Genocide, the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague, The Netherlands, indicted Bashir in July 2008 on charges of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes in Darfur.  He was the first sitting president to be indicted by the ICC.   In 2009, the ICC issued a warrant for Bashir's arrest.  

Sources:
John Middleton and Joseph C. Miller, eds., New Encyclopedia of Africa (Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008); Kevin Shillington, Encyclopedia of African History (New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2004); "Profile: Sudan's President Bashir," BBC News (November 25, 2003) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3273569.stm.

Contributor(s):
Yoo, Jiwon Amy
University of Washington Seattle

Entry Categories:

Copyright 2007-2017 - BlackPast.org v3.0 NDCHost - California | blackpast@blackpast.org | Your donations help us to grow. | We welcome your suggestions. | Mission Statement

BlackPast.org is an independent non-profit corporation 501(c)(3). It has no affiliation with the University of Washington. BlackPast.org is supported in part by a grant from Humanities Washington, a state-wide non-profit organization supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the state of Washington, and contributions from individuals and foundations.